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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Steel Plate Roughness on the Frictional Properties of Cereal Kernels

Department of Heavy Duty Machines and Research Methodology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ul. Oczapowskiego 11, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, ul. Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1003;
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the external friction angle of cereal kernels and the roughness of a steel friction plate. The experiment was performed on the kernels of five principal cereals: wheat, rye, barley, oats, and triticale. Flat seed units composed of three spaced kernels joined by adhesive tape were analyzed in each experimental variant. The external friction angle of flat seed units was determined on nine steel friction plates with different roughness. Measurements were performed in three replications with a photosensor device which registered the external friction angle of cereal kernels. On friction plates with surface roughness Ra = 0.36 to Ra = 6.72, the average values of the angle of external friction ranged from 17.56° in rye kernels to 34.01° in oat kernels. The greatest similarities in the angle of external friction were observed between wheat and triticale kernels, whereas the greatest differences were noted between barley and oat kernels and between barley and triticale kernels. Friction plates made of ST3S steel should be characterized by the lowest surface roughness to minimize energy consumption during grain processing. The optimal surface roughness of steel friction plates was determined at Ra = 0.9. View Full-Text
Keywords: cereal kernels; steel; surface roughness; angle of external friction cereal kernels; steel; surface roughness; angle of external friction
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Kaliniewicz, Z.; Żuk, Z.; Krzysiak, Z. Influence of Steel Plate Roughness on the Frictional Properties of Cereal Kernels. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1003.

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