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Efficiency of Different Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

Faculty of Accounting and Business Management, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam
Economics & Rural Development, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux 5030, Belgium
Faculty of Fisheries, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 493;
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
PDF [1985 KB, uploaded 13 February 2018]


Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA) is characteristic with diversity of small-scale production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam where most integrated aquaculture systems are closely associated to the VAC model, an ecosystem production that three components: garden (V), pond (A) and livestock pen (C) are integrated. These VAC systems effectively use all the available land, air, water and solar energy resources, and also effectively recycle by-products and waste for providing diversified agricultural products to meet the complex nutritional demands of rural communities. The IAA systems are dynamic, diverse and subject to economic and environmental changes. By investigating 167 aquaculture households, the traditional VAC, New VAC, Animal Fish (AF) and Commercial Fish (FS) systems are identified as four existing IAA systems. This paper presents the main characteristics and economic efficiency of these IAA systems. The study’s results indicate clear evidence that the traditional VAC system and New VAC system are the most efficient and effective models. The findings of this study have shed light on the important role of integrated aquaculture systems to food security and economic development of households and local communities. The VAC systems are likely to propose for improving household food security and developing the local economy. View Full-Text
Keywords: efficiency; integrated aquaculture systems; VAC; Red River Delta efficiency; integrated aquaculture systems; VAC; Red River Delta

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Van Huong, N.; Huu Cuong, T.; Thi Nang Thu, T.; Lebailly, P. Efficiency of Different Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. Sustainability 2018, 10, 493.

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