Next Article in Journal
Estimation of CO2 Emissions Produced by Commercial Grills in Veracruz, Mexico
Next Article in Special Issue
Identifying Factors Reinforcing Robotization: Interactive Forces of Employment, Working Hour and Wage
Previous Article in Journal
Taking the First Steps beyond GDP: Maryland’s Experience in Measuring “Genuine Progress”
Previous Article in Special Issue
Task Characteristics and Work Engagement: Exploring Effects of Role Ambiguity and ICT Presenteeism
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 463;

Technology and Occupations in Business Cycles

INAPP Rome and Institute of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza, Università Roma Tre, 00154 Rome, Italy
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT), 00184 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Technological Change on Employment, Skills and Earnings)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3465 KB, uploaded 9 February 2018]   |  


Building on studies on the impact of the Great Recession on the occupational and skill structure of employment, this article investigates developments over the last business cycle (2002–2007 and 2007–2011) in 36 manufacturing and service industries of five major European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom). We analyse how technology, education and wages have shaped the evolution of four professional groups—Managers, Clerks, Craft and Manual workers—defined on the basis of ISCO classes. During the upswing in manufacturing industries all professional groups except managers have experienced job losses, while new jobs in services have followed a pattern of growing occupational polarization. Demand growth has a general positive effect across all occupations; new products lead to job creation in the group of managers only; wage increases slow down job creation except in the lowest occupational group. During the downswing, large job losses are concentrated in the lowest occupations and most relationships—including the role of demand and wages—break down; product innovation loses its positive impact on jobs while new processes drive restructuring and job destruction across all professional groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupations; innovation; technology; business cycles occupations; innovation; technology; business cycles

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cirillo, V.; Pianta, M.; Nascia, L. Technology and Occupations in Business Cycles. Sustainability 2018, 10, 463.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top