# Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR) Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. History of HSR

^{−1}[7]. The commercial success of the first TGV led to an expansion of the network to different parts of France. The statistics of the International Union of Railways (UIC) show that the TGV had 2142 km of HSR in operation, 634 km under construction, and 1786 km being planned by the end of April 2017 [8].

## 2. Requirements on HSR

## 3. Literature Review

## 4. Establishment of Evaluation Index System

## 5. Unascertained Measure Theory

## 6. Establishment of Unascertained Measure Model

#### 6.1. Single-Index Measure

#### 6.1.1. Single-Index Measure Matrix

#### 6.1.2. Distinction Weight of Single-Index

#### 6.2. First Grade Index Measure

#### 6.3. Determination of First Grade Index Weight by AHP

#### 6.4. Identification

## 7. Case Study

#### 7.1. Overview

#### 7.2. Weight Calculation of Second Grade Index

#### 7.3. Measure Calculation of First Grade Index

#### 7.4. Determining the Classification Weight of First Grade Index

#### 7.5. Calculation of Comprehensive Measure Vector

#### 7.6. Confidence Level Recognition

#### 7.7. Result Discussion

#### 7.7.1. Process Evaluation

#### 7.7.2. Economic Benefits

#### 7.7.3. Effect Evaluation

#### 7.7.4. Sustainability Evaluation

#### 7.7.5. Overall Result

## 8. Conclusions

- (1)
- The AHP was adopted to realize simultaneous qualitative and quantitative evaluations of influencing factors. Then, the weights were assigned in a rational and consistent manner, such that the importance of each index was measured correctly. This reflects the significance different among evaluation factors in the sustainability evaluation system.
- (2)
- The sustainability evaluation shows that the Harbin-Dalian PDL project achieved good results in process, economic benefits, effects, and sustainability, thanks to the excellent performance of decision-making, construction and operation. The opening and operation of the PDL will bring long-term benefits to tourism, the economy, transport capacity, and many other fields.
- (3)
- In spite of its good overall sustainability, the Harbin-Dalian PDL project needs to further increase its economic benefits and reduce its negative environmental effect. For this purpose, it is necessary to adopt the management mode of “separation between network and transportation” and apply noise prevention measures like noise barriers, tunnels, and overhead viaducts.
- (4)
- Facing the increasingly rapid development and construction of HSR, the sustainability evaluation of HSR construction projects needs to learn from the relatively mature research methods at home and abroad, in order to make up for the shortcomings of the existing research methods in terms of breadth and accuracy. The scientific evaluation system should be constructed to make the citation and index selection more scientific in the empirical research, and to strengthen the prediction of the impact capacity of the future construction of HSR, not just to analyze the impact of the existing HSR.

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**The global percentage of in-service under construction mileage of HSR in Asia, Europe, North America, and Africa in April 2017.

Total Index | First Index | Secondary Index | Third Index |
---|---|---|---|

Index system of sustainable development on HSR construction project $\mathrm{X}$ | process evaluation ${\mathrm{F}}_{1}$ | process evaluation of pre-bid decision-making ${\mathrm{S}}_{1}$ | necessity of project construction ${\mathrm{T}}_{1}$ |

scientific of decision-making program ${\mathrm{T}}_{2}$ | |||

survey and design ${\mathrm{T}}_{3}$ | |||

construction process evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{2}$ | safety management ${\mathrm{T}}_{4}$ | ||

main technical indices ${\mathrm{T}}_{5}$ | |||

construction quality ${\mathrm{T}}_{6}$ | |||

investment control ${\mathrm{T}}_{7}$ | |||

time limit ${\mathrm{T}}_{8}$ | |||

operation process evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{3}$ | preparation of operational effect ${\mathrm{T}}_{9}$ | ||

operation management level ${\mathrm{T}}_{10}$ | |||

evaluation of economic benefits ${\mathrm{F}}_{2}$ | financial benefit evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{4}$ | payback period of investment ${\mathrm{T}}_{11}$ | |

debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) ${\mathrm{T}}_{12}$ | |||

national economic benefits evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{5}$ | contribution to GDP ${\mathrm{T}}_{13}$ | ||

freight cost reduction benefits ${\mathrm{T}}_{14}$ | |||

economic internal rate of return (IRR) ${\mathrm{T}}_{15}$ | |||

economic net present value (NPV) ${\mathrm{T}}_{16}$ | |||

effect evaluation ${\mathrm{F}}_{3}$ | social effect evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{6}$ | drive labor and employment ${\mathrm{T}}_{17}$ | |

appreciation rate of land and house ${\mathrm{T}}_{18}$ | |||

outage rate of cars and planes along the line ${\mathrm{T}}_{19}$ | |||

increased transport capacity ${\mathrm{T}}_{20}$ | |||

average travel time ${\mathrm{T}}_{21}$ | |||

per Capita GNP along the line ${\mathrm{T}}_{22}$ | |||

compensate degree of benefit damage group ${\mathrm{T}}_{23}$ | |||

boost national prestige ${\mathrm{T}}_{24}$ | |||

environmental effect evaluation ${\mathrm{S}}_{7}$ | ecological environmental effect ${\mathrm{T}}_{25}$ | ||

project pollution control ${\mathrm{T}}_{26}$ | |||

sustainability evaluation ${\mathrm{F}}_{4}$ | evaluation of internal sustainability factors ${\mathrm{S}}_{8}$ | project management mechanism ${\mathrm{T}}_{27}$ | |

growth rate of traffic volume ${\mathrm{T}}_{28}$ | |||

technical factors ${\mathrm{T}}_{29}$ | |||

evaluation of external sustainability factors ${\mathrm{S}}_{9}$ | benign circulation factors ${\mathrm{T}}_{30}$ | ||

project satisfaction ${\mathrm{T}}_{31}$ | |||

capital factors ${\mathrm{T}}_{32}$ |

Index | Contains the Content | Content Description |
---|---|---|

Social Effect Evaluation | effect on residents’ lives | Per Capita GNP along the line |

Average travel time | ||

effect on the interest group | drive labor and employment | |

appreciation rate of land and house | ||

compensate degree of benefit damage group | ||

effect on traffic structure | outage rate of cars and planes along the line | |

increased transport capacity | ||

effect on the national image | boost national prestige |

Weight | Description |
---|---|

1 | equal importance |

3 | moderately more important |

5 | strongly more important |

7 | very strongly more important |

9 | dominant importance |

2, 4, 6, 8 | representing the intermediate values of the above adjacent judgments |

Reciprocals | anti-comparison |

Order | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

$\mathrm{RI}$ | 0 | 0 | 0.52 | 0.86 | 1.10 | 1.26 | 1.34 | 1.40 | 1.43 | 1.49 | 1.51 | 1.54 | 1.56 | 1.58 |

Total Index | First Index | Secondary Index | Third Index | Evaluation Results of 10 Experts | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Very Poor | Poor | Qualified | Good | Excellent | ||||

X | F_{1}(0.300) | S_{1}(0.341) | T_{1} (0.305) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 5 | 3 |

T_{2} (0.37) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 5 | 3 | |||

T_{3} (0.325) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 5 | 5 | |||

S_{2}(0.361) | T_{4} (0.087) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 5 | 5 | ||

T_{5} (0.285) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 | 4 | |||

T_{6} (0.306) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 3 | |||

T_{7} (0.225) | 0 | 1 | 3 | 5 | 1 | |||

T_{8} (0.097) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 4 | |||

S_{3}(0.298) | T_{9} (0.6) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 5 | 3 | ||

T_{10} (0.4) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 3 | |||

F_{2}(0.339) | S_{4}(0.25) | T_{11} (0.5) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 | 4 | |

T_{12} (0.5) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 3 | |||

S_{5}(0.75) | T_{13} (0.532) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 4 | ||

T_{14} (0.127) | 0 | 4 | 5 | 1 | 0 | |||

T_{15} (0.172) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 6 | 2 | |||

T_{16} (0.169) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 6 | 2 | |||

F_{3}(0.251) | S_{6}(0.75) | T_{17} (0.08) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 4 | |

T_{18} (0.095) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 8 | 2 | |||

T_{19} (0.091) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 6 | 3 | |||

T_{20} (0.139) | 0 | 0 | 2 | 6 | 2 | |||

T_{21} (0.157) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 6 | 3 | |||

T_{22} (0.125) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 5 | 5 | |||

T_{23} (0.215) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 6 | 1 | |||

T_{24} (0.098) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 7 | 2 | |||

S_{7}(0.25) | T_{25} (0.75) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 | 4 | ||

T_{26} (0.25) | 0 | 1 | 1 | 5 | 3 | |||

F_{4}(0.110) | S_{8}(0.5) | T_{27} (0.199) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 7 | 2 | |

T_{28} (0.386) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 4 | |||

T_{29} (0.415) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 6 | 3 | |||

S_{9}(0.5) | T_{30} (0.182) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 3 | ||

T_{31} (0.428) | 0 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 4 | |||

T_{32} (0.39) | 0 | 0 | 1 | 6 | 3 |

**Table 6.**A comparison of accessibility indices before and after the operating of HSR [55].

Index | Before the Operating of HSR | After the Operating of HSR |
---|---|---|

Number of tourist scenic spots in one day | 0 | 53 |

Number of tourist scenic spots in two days | 32 | 84 |

Number of tourist cities in one day | 0 | 8 |

Number of tourist cities in two days | 8 | 20 |

Average accessibility of tourist scenic spots/h | 7.4 | 4.9 |

Average accessibility of tourist cities/h | 7.7 | 5.4 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Dong, S.
Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR) Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process. *Sustainability* **2018**, *10*, 408.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020408

**AMA Style**

Chang Y, Yang Y, Dong S.
Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR) Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process. *Sustainability*. 2018; 10(2):408.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020408

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chang, Yongzhi, Yang Yang, and Suocheng Dong.
2018. "Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR) Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process" *Sustainability* 10, no. 2: 408.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020408