A Comparative Study on the RFS Program of Korea with the US and UK
1.1. Research Objective
1.2. Biofuel in the World Energy Supply
1.2.1. Biofuel in the US
1.2.2. Biofuel in the EU
1.2.3. Biofuel in the UK
1.2.4. Biofuel in Korea
1.3. Comparison of RFS Program by Country
2. Data and Methods
2.1. Sustainability of Biodiesel in the US
2.2. Sustainability of Biodiesel in the UK
2.3. Sustainability of Biodiesel in Korea
Conflicts of Interest
|DfT||Department for Transportation|
|DLUC||Direct Land Use Change|
|EISA||Energy Independence and Security Act|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|ETBE||Ethyl tert-butyl ether|
|EU RED||EU Renewable Energy Directive|
|FAME||Fatty Acid Methyl Ester|
|FFB||Fresh Fruit Bunches|
|GREET||Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation|
|HVO||Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil|
|IEA||International Energy Agency|
|ILUC||Indirect Land Use Change|
|INDC||Intended Nationally Determined Contribution|
|KEA||Korea Energy Agency|
|K-Petro||Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority|
|LUC||Land Use Change|
|NUTS2||Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics|
|PFAD||Palm Fatty Acid Distillate|
|RFS||Renewable Fuel Standards|
|RSB||Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels|
|RTFO||Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation|
|RTFC||Renewable Transport Fuel Certificates|
|UCO||Used Cooking Oil|
|WWF||World Wildlife Fund|
|Biofuel and Bioliquid Production Pathway||Typical Greenhouse Gas Emissions (gCO2eq/MJ)||Default Greenhouse Gas Emissions (gCO2eq/MJ)|
|Sugar beet ethanol||33||40|
|Wheat ethanol (process fuel not specified)||57||70|
|Wheat ethanol (lignite as process fuel in CHP plant)||57||70|
|Wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in conventional boiler)||46||55|
|Wheat ethanol (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant)||39||44|
|Wheat ethanol (straw as process fuel in CHP plant)||26||26|
|Corn (maize) ethanol, Community produced (natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant)||37||43|
|Sugar cane ethanol||24||24|
|The part from renewable sources of ETBE||Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used|
|The part from renewable sources of TAEE||Equal to that of the ethanol production pathway used|
|Rape seed biodiesel||46||52|
|Palm oil biodiesel (process not specified)||54||68|
|Palm oil biodiesel (process with methane capture at oil mill)||32||37|
|Waste vegetable or animal oil biodiesel||10||14|
|Hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape seed||41||44|
|Hydrotreated vegetable oil from sunflower||29||32|
|Hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process not specified)||50||62|
|Hydrotreated vegetable oil from palm oil (process with methane capture at oil mill)||27||29|
|Pure vegetable oil from rape seed||35||36|
|Biogas from municipal organic waste as compressed natural gas||17||26|
|Biogas from wet manure as CNG||13||16|
|Biogas from dry manure as CNG||12||15|
- Irrespective of whether the raw materials were cultivated inside or outside the territory of the Community, energy from biofuels and bioliquids shall be taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c) only if they fulfil the sustainability criteria set out in paragraphs 2 to 6:
However, biofuels and bioliquids produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria set out in paragraph 2 in order to be taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c).
- Measuring compliance with the requirements of this Directive concerning national targets;
- Measuring compliance with renewable energy obligations;
- Eligibility for financial support for the consumption of biofuels and bioliquids.
- The greenhouse gas emission saving from the use of biofuels and bioliquids taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph 1 shall be at least 35 %. With effect from 1 January 2017, the greenhouse gas emission saving from the use of biofuels and bioliquids taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph 1 shall be at least 50 %. From 1 January 2018 that greenhouse gas emission saving shall be at least 60 % for biofuels and bioliquids produced in installations in which production started on or after 1 January 2017. The greenhouse gas emission saving from the use of biofuels and bioliquids shall be calculated in accordance with Article 19 (1). In the case of biofuels and bioliquids produced by installations that were in operation on 23 January 2008, the first subparagraph shall apply from 1 April 2013.
- Biofuels and bioliquids taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph 1 shall not be made from raw material obtained from land with high biodiversity value, namely land that had one of the following statuses in or after January 2008, whether or not the land continues to have that status:
The Commission shall establish the criteria and geographic ranges to determine which grassland shall be covered by point (c) of the first subparagraph. Those measures, designed to amend nonessential elements of this Directive, by supplementing it shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 25(4).
- Primary forest and other wooded land, namely forest and other wooded land of native species, where there is no clearly visible indication of human activity and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed;
- Areas designated:
- By law or by the relevant competent authority for nature protection purposes; or
- For the protection of rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems or species recognized by international agreements or included in lists drawn up by intergovernmental organizations or the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, subject to their recognition in accordance with the second subparagraph of Article 18(4); unless evidence is provided that the production of that raw material did not interfere with those nature protection purposes;
- Highly biodiverse grassland that is:
- Natural, namely grassland that would remain grassland in the absence of human intervention and which maintains the natural species composition and ecological characteristics and processes; or
- Non-natural, namely grassland that would cease to be grassland in the absence of human intervention and which is species-rich and not degraded, unless evidence is provided that the harvesting of the raw material is necessary to preserve its grassland status.
- Biofuels and bioliquids taken into account for the purposes referred to in points (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph 1 shall not be made from raw material obtained from land with high carbon stock, namely land that had one of the following statuses in January 2008 and no longer has that status:
The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply if, at the time the raw material was obtained, the land had the same status as it had in January 2008.
- Wetlands, namely land that is covered with or saturated by water permanently or for a significant part of the year;
- Continuously forested areas, namely land spanning more than one hectare with trees higher than five meters and a canopy cover of more than 30%, or trees able to reach those thresholds in situ;
- Land spanning more than one hectare with trees higher than five meters and a canopy cover of between 10% and 30%, or trees able to reach those thresholds in situ, unless evidence is provided that the carbon stock of the area before and after conversion is such that, when the methodology laid down in part C of Annex V is applied, the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 of this Article would be fulfilled.
|Issue||Compulsory Standards||Optional Standards|
|Soil erosion: Protect soil through appropriate measures||Minimum soil cover||Retain terraces|
|Minimum land management reflecting site-specific conditions|
|Soil organic matter: Maintain soil organic matter levels through appropriate practices||Arable stubble management||Standards for crop rotations|
|Soil structure: Maintain soil structure through appropriate measures||Appropriate machinery use|
|Minimum level of maintenance: Ensure a minimum level of maintenance and avoid the deterioration of habitats||Retention of landscape features, including, where appropriate, hedges, ponds, ditches trees in line, in group||Minimum livestock stocking rates or/and appropriate regimes|
|Establishment and/or retention of habitats|
|Avoiding the encroachment of unwanted veg||Prohibition of the grubbing up of olive trees|
|Protection of permanent pasture||Maintenance of olive groves and vines in good vegetative condition|
|Protection and management of water: Protect water against pollution and run-off, and manage the use of water||Establishment of buffer strips along water courses (1)|
|Where use of water for irrigation is subject to authorization, compliance with authorization procedures|
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|Implement agency||KEA, K-Petro||EPA||DfT|
|Start year||2015||RFS 1: 2007.9~2010.11|
RFS 2: 2010.12~2022
|Volume target||Blending 3% biodiesel with conventional diesel (2018~2020)||36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022||Biofuel volume|
- 2018: 7.3%, 2020: 9.8%, 2032: 12.4%
|Renewable fuel under the RFS||Biodiesel||Biomass-based diesel|
Total renewable fuel
|Biofuel, partial biofuels, renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBOs) and fuels that are part RFNBO, part non-RFNBO|
|Obligated parties||Refineries or imports of diesel fuel||Refineries or imports of gasoline or diesel fuel||Suppliers of transport and nonroad mobile machinery fuel|
|Compliance||Blending biodiesel into transportation fuel||Blending renewable fuels into transportation fuel obtaining credits, Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) to meet an EPA-specific renewable volume obligation||Mandatory sustainability criteria have to be met for biofuels to be issued with Renewable Transport Fuel Certificates (RTFCs) and count towards suppliers’ obligations|
|All of the biodiesels blended are granted to be 100% GHG reduction, carbon neutral||Lifecycle GHG reduction (as compared to a 2005 petroleum baseline)||At least 60% lower carbon footprint than their fossil fuel alternatives GHG, 83.8 gCO2eq/MJ|
|Feedstock||Production Process||Ag. Impact||LUC||Feedstock Transport||Fuel Production||Fuel Dist. & Use||Net Emissions||% Reduction|
|Algal oil||Transesterification (Open pond, mid)||0.0||0.0||0.0||31.5||1.5||33.0||66%|
|Transesterification (PBR, mid)||0.0||0.0||0.0||26.3||1.5||27.8||71%|
|Cellulose from corn stover||Fischer-Tropsch process||11.6||−11.2||1.2||5.4||2.0||9.0||91%|
|Soy bean oil||Transesterification||−8.8||33.6||2.7||13.2||1.5||42.2||57%|
|Unit||per mmBtu||per mmBtu|
|CO2 (w/C in VOC & CO)||5,143||12,533|
1 January 2017
~31 December 2017
|On or after 1 January 2018|
|For bioliquids produced in an installation that started producing bioliquid before |
1 January 2017
|For bioliquids not produced in an installation that started producing bioliquid before|
1 January 2017
|GHG emission threshold||35%||50%||50%||60%|
|Bioliquid Production Pathway||Default CI [gCO2eq/MJ]||Disaggregated Default Values [gCO2eq/MJ]||GHG Saving|
|Cultivation||Processing||Transport & Distribution|
|Palm oil biodiesel (process not specified)||68||14||49||5||19%|
|Rape seed biodiesel||52||29||22||1||38%|
|Waste vegetable or animal biodiesel||14||0||13||1||83%|
|General Information||Country of Origin Information||Land Use||CI||Indirective RED Compliance|
|Consignment. No.||Fuel |
|Biofuel Feedstock||Production |
|Country of Origin||NUTS2 |
|Land Use on|
1 January 2008
|02||Bio-ethanol||Wheat||Natural gas CHP||Croatia||HRO4||Cropland-|
|Carbon Saving (%)|
|Bioethanol, ETBE, TAME||Corn (produced within the EU)||Natural gas a process fuel in CHP plant||43||49|
|Wheat||Lignite as process fuel in CHP plant||70||16|
|Natural gas as process fuel in conventional boiler||55||34|
|Natural gas as process fuel in CHP plant||44||47|
|Straw as process fuel in CHP plant||26||69|
|Biodiesel (Methyl ester)||Palm||Methane capture at oil mill||37||56|
|Biodiesel (HVO)||Palm||Methane capture at oil mill||29||65|
|Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)||-||30||102||136||154.8||169.6|
|103ton||Percent||CI (gCO2eq/MJ)||CI (kgCO2eq/t(Biofuel)||GHG Emissions (103 tCO2eq)|
|Energy Used (103TOE)||Total GHG Emission (103tCO2eq)|
|Energy Used (103TOE)||% of Total||Total GHG Emission (103tCO2eq)||% of Total|
|No-Biodiesel Scenario||GHG Emission (103tCO2eq)|
|103 TOE||Amount inc/dec||GHG Total||Amount inc/dec|
|Net increase in GHG in a no-biodiesel scenario||+999.2|
|Feedstock||The Amount that Can Be Secured||Feedstock Cost||Unit Cost of Production||Ranking Supply Potential|
|Palm and PFAD||★★★★★||★★★★||★★★★★||1|
|Domestic waste oil||★★||★★★★★||★★||4|
|Domestic rape oil||★★★||★||★★★★★||5|
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Shin, J.-Y.; Kim, G.-W.; Zepernick, J.S.; Kang, K.-Y. A Comparative Study on the RFS Program of Korea with the US and UK. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4618. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124618
Shin J-Y, Kim G-W, Zepernick JS, Kang K-Y. A Comparative Study on the RFS Program of Korea with the US and UK. Sustainability. 2018; 10(12):4618. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124618Chicago/Turabian Style
Shin, Jung-Yull, Gun-Woo Kim, Janet S. Zepernick, and Kyu-Young Kang. 2018. "A Comparative Study on the RFS Program of Korea with the US and UK" Sustainability 10, no. 12: 4618. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124618