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Stochastic Empty Container Repositioning Problem with CO2 Emission Considerations for an Intermodal Transportation System

School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
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Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4211; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114211
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
As one of main challenge for carriers, empty container repositioning is subject to various uncertain factors in practice, which causes more operation costs. At the same time, the movements of empty containers can result in air pollution because of the CO2 emission, which has a negative impact on sustainable development. To incorporate environmental and stochastic characteristics of container shipping, in this paper, an empty container repositioning problem, taking into account CO2 emission, stochastic demand, and supply, is introduced in a sea–rail intermodal transportation system. This problem is formulated as a chance-constrained nonlinear integer programming model minimising the expected value of total weighted cost. A sample average approximation method is applied to convert this model into its deterministic equivalents, which is then solved by the proposed two-phase tabu search algorithm. A numerical example is studied to conclude that the stochastic demand and supply lead to more repositioning and CO2 emission-related cost. Total cost, inventory cost, and leasing cost increase with the variabilities of uncertain parameters. We also found that the total cost and other component costs are strongly dependent on the weights of repositioning cost and CO2 emission-related cost. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis is conducted on unit leasing cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: empty container repositioning; CO2 emission; stochastic demand; stochastic supply empty container repositioning; CO2 emission; stochastic demand; stochastic supply
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Xue, Q.; Zhang, X. Stochastic Empty Container Repositioning Problem with CO2 Emission Considerations for an Intermodal Transportation System. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4211. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114211

AMA Style

Zhao Y, Xue Q, Zhang X. Stochastic Empty Container Repositioning Problem with CO2 Emission Considerations for an Intermodal Transportation System. Sustainability. 2018; 10(11):4211. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Yi, Qingwan Xue, and Xi Zhang. 2018. "Stochastic Empty Container Repositioning Problem with CO2 Emission Considerations for an Intermodal Transportation System" Sustainability 10, no. 11: 4211. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114211

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