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Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4114; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114114

Critical Mineral Security in China: An Evaluation Based on Hybrid MCDM Methods

1
Business School, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China
2
School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
4
Research Center for Environment and Sustainable, Development of the China Civil Aviation, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300, China
5
Institute of Land and Urban-rural Development, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Abstract

With economic globalization, the supply-and-demand gap of China’s minerals is becoming increasingly sharp, and the degree of dependence on imports is climbing, which poses a severe threat to the resource security for the country. From the perspectives of system and sustainable development, this paper develops a conceptual framework of mineral security, which is composed of five dimensions: availability, accessibility, technology and efficiency, sociability and governance, and environmental sustainability. Based on this framework, it constructs the evaluating metrics for measuring mineral security. Moreover, it employs the hybrid multiple criteria decision-making methods of Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) to assess the security performance for China’s several critical minerals, namely iron, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, and nickel, with respect to the period of 2001 to 2015. The result indicates that the critical minerals of China were at a low to moderate level of security. Iron, copper, and nickel were in an unsecure situation for their short supply in China, and showed a downswing trend. On the other hand, as the preponderant minerals, lead and zinc were at a relatively secure position and uprising; however, they were exhausting their superiority for the huge and rapid-growth economic demand. Aluminum, as a mineral that China seriously depends on for imports, also demonstrated an upward trend due to the successful management of diversity of importing sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical mineral security; China; multiple criterial decision-making; policy implications critical mineral security; China; multiple criterial decision-making; policy implications
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Zhang, L.; Bai, W.; Yu, J.; Ma, L.; Ren, J.; Zhang, W.; Cui, Y. Critical Mineral Security in China: An Evaluation Based on Hybrid MCDM Methods. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4114.

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