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Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113942

Offshore Wind Farms as Potential Locations for Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis) Restoration in the Dutch North Sea

1
Wageningen Marine Research, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 77, 4400 AB Yerseke, The Netherlands
2
Environmental Policy Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Deltares, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands
4
Bureau Waardenburg, P.O. Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg, The Netherlands
5
Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract

The “Dutch Energy Agreement” motivates governments and industries to invest in renewable energy sources, of which offshore wind energy is one of the solutions to meet the agreed target of 16% of the total energy budget from renewable resources by 2023. An option for the multi-use of wind farms is nature-inclusive building, in which the design and construction of wind farms make use of the potential for co-design with oyster bed restoration. This can support the government’s ambitions, for the Dutch North Sea, to achieve biodiversity goals, restore ecosystem functions, and enhance ecosystem services, including future seafood production. For the recovery of flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) beds, knowledge is required about the conditions under which active restoration of this species in the North Sea can be successfully implemented. This paper gives a framework and presents results to determine suitability of wind farms for flat oyster restoration, and provides recommendations for pilot studies. Our analysis showed that a number of wind farms in the Dutch section of the North Sea are suitable locations for development of flat oyster beds. Combining oyster restoration and oyster culture, as a protein source, is a viable option worth investigating. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ostrea edulis; native oyster restoration; North Sea; site selection; pilot study; offshore wind farms Ostrea edulis; native oyster restoration; North Sea; site selection; pilot study; offshore wind farms
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Kamermans, P.; Walles, B.; Kraan, M.; Van Duren, L.A.; Kleissen, F.; Van der Have, T.M.; Smaal, A.C.; Poelman, M. Offshore Wind Farms as Potential Locations for Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis) Restoration in the Dutch North Sea. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3942.

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