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A Comparative Analysis of Satisfaction and Sustainable Participation in Actual Leisure Sports and Virtual Reality Leisure Sports

1
Department of Sports Taekwondo, Graduate School of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Korea
2
Department of Sport Management, State University of New York at Cortland, Professional Studies Building, Room 1111, Cortland, NY 13045, USA
3
Department of Golf Industry, College of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3475; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103475
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
The advanced technology of virtual reality (VR) has brought about significant changes in our society, and leisure sports are no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess how leisure satisfaction with leisure sports and degree of sustainable participation affect men and women in actual sports and virtual reality (VR) sports. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to confirm scale validity and reliability, and multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression were conducted for comparative analysis and linear relationships between variances. The results showed that while men typically participate in ‘masculine’ sports and women in ‘feminine’ sports, both genders equally enjoy the same types of VR sports. In terms of gender differences, female VR sport participants placed importance on educational leisure satisfaction and the intent of sustainable participation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the physical, psychological, or social leisure satisfaction factors, indicating no differences in satisfaction between performing actual sports and those in the VR environment. In addition, all factors except relaxation factor, had a positive impact on intent of sustainable participation. This study implied that VR sports offer an opportunity for people to be together, regardless of gender, and that it is becoming a part of healthy leisure sports culture. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable participation; leisure satisfaction; VR sports; gender differences; leisure sustainable participation; leisure satisfaction; VR sports; gender differences; leisure
MDPI and ACS Style

Bum, C.-H.; Mahoney, T.Q.; Choi, C. A Comparative Analysis of Satisfaction and Sustainable Participation in Actual Leisure Sports and Virtual Reality Leisure Sports. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3475. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103475

AMA Style

Bum C-H, Mahoney TQ, Choi C. A Comparative Analysis of Satisfaction and Sustainable Participation in Actual Leisure Sports and Virtual Reality Leisure Sports. Sustainability. 2018; 10(10):3475. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bum, Chul-Ho, Tara Q. Mahoney, and Chulhwan Choi. 2018. "A Comparative Analysis of Satisfaction and Sustainable Participation in Actual Leisure Sports and Virtual Reality Leisure Sports" Sustainability 10, no. 10: 3475. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103475

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