- freely available
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010060
2. Literature Review
2.1. Political Sustainability
2.2. Political Sustainability and Citizens’ Satisfaction
2.3. Taiwanese Citizens’ Satisfaction
- Economic performance: In Taiwan, economics is historically a left–right issue . The economic development in Taiwan was once taken as the miracle in East Asia. Taiwan’s economic development was due to the expansion of exports within the years of the 1970s and 1980s. However, owing to the decay of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and the Original Design Manufacturer (ODM) orders, the surplus outflow of the industries, passive research and development, the depleted advanced industries and entrepreneurship, deficient financial mediation, and excess economic dependence on mainland China, Taiwan has become stagnated . As a result of the withering economic conditions, Taiwanese voters raised concerns regarding the economic performance which has impacted on the satisfaction level with the government. Ayers and Callway (2005) elucidate the goals for successful economic problem solving in the realm of successful governance. These goals include domestic poverty alleviation, enough food supply, primary education, gender equality, health problems alleviation, clean drinking water supply, sustainable development, solving the side effects of international free trade and handling governmental debts .
- Future expectation: The relationship between the subjective and objective measures of governmental performance has been the analysis focus of the public administration . Although some studies raise doubts regarding the voters survey as the proxy for evaluating the governmental performance , recent studies have indicated that voters would have correct perceptions for some local government services . As for the relationship between the long run expectation of voters and their satisfaction with the government, Van Ryzin (2007) stipulates the model that citizens’ future expectations affect their trust, perceived performance and evaluation to the governmental performance .
- Educational reform: Because of the dynamic of the society and domestic politics, Taiwan has set out an educational reform plan. The educational reform took the form of a curriculum reform. The Grade 1–9 Integrated Curriculum solely made guidelines for schools and enabled primary and secondary schools to have the flexibility to determine their textbooks and study plans. However, the educational reform has raised criticism and complaints from teachers attributable to their inability to respond to the curriculum changes . Besides, teachers did not have detailed information regarding the reform and cannot persuade parents to support the reform. Therefore, the education reform has resulted in opposition and discontent among both teachers and parents .
- Food safety: The food safety scandal has raised general public concern since the prohibited usage of food additives in 2011. The Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) determined that two corporations used DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) and DiNP(Di-iso-nonyl Phthalate) for vegetable oil in evaporation agents and distributed them to major Taiwanese food manufacturers . Tsai et al. (2016) investigated the connection between the DEHP tainted food and the urinary organ performance in kids and showed that the intake of DEHP tainted food would have the potential risk for microalbuminuria. The food safety scandal has become one of the key considerations of Taiwanese voters and relates to their satisfaction with the government .
- Sunflower Movement: The “Sunflower Movement” in 2013 was the tipping point for the cross-strait economic policy change in Taiwan. The governing Nationalist Party (KMT) decided to facilitate the legislative process of the Cross-Strait Services Trade Agreement (CSSTA) after the agreements from two quasi-state agencies, the Straits Exchange Foundation and the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Strait, the counterpart of the Mainland China in 2013, while some non-governmental organization (NGO) leaders worried that the CSSTA would enable more Mainland penetration into Taiwan’s economy and intended to sabotage the legislative process. The protesters then unlawfully occupied the Legislative Yuan and made the whole legislative process in stalemate and stalled. The aftermath of the “Sunflower Movement” has several side effects. The movement was deemed as the main reason for the Democratic Progressive Party to win the landslide victory in the 2014 election [28,29].
- Integrity: Sustainability is an obviously normative concept and includes the particular moral attitude to the future. It relates to the moral responsibility to the future generations. The outcome assessment of the political sustainability is based on concerns about justice . Governmental integrity behavior relates to the moral issue of the political sustainability. Joshi et al. (2015) determine the governance variables related to the sustainable development. The governance variables include the security index, the capacity index and the inclusion index. The governmental integrity behavior is evaluated as the corruption level. In light of the previous literature, the study used governmental integrity behavior as one of the factors which affect political sustainability .
3. Research Method
3.1. Research Process
3.2. PLS-DA Model
3.3. Sample Data and Variables
3.4. PLS-DA Principal Component Analysis
3.5. PLS-DA Model
3.6. OPLS-DA Model
- First, the study constructed the PLS-DA model and made the principal component analysis. Since the results of PLS-DA principal component analysis chose one component to represent all independent variables, it implied that h2, h7, h8 had positive relationships with the dependent variable h1.
- The variables plot of PLS-DA model indicated that h3, h4, h6 belonged to the same group and h7, h8 belonged to the other group. The PLS-DA model also made the model VIP analysis and found that h2, h7, h8 and h9 had larger impacts on h1.
- In order to obtain more information and improve the predictive performance of our model, the study used the OPLS-DA model to make the analysis. We found that the R2Y and Q2Y values were larger than that of the PLS-DA model. This means that the OPLS-DA model had better predictive performance. The relationship plot of the OPLS-DA results implied that only h2, h3, h5, h7, h8 and h9 had the relationship with the four categories of satisfaction level of h1. The independent variables h7 and h8 had the relationship with the first, second and fourth satisfaction level of h1, while h2 and h9 had the links with the second, third and fourth satisfaction level of h1, h3 and h9 had the links with the second and fourth satisfaction level of h1. h5 was related to the third and fourth satisfaction level of h1. It can be induced that the Taiwanese civilians’ lowest satisfaction level with the central government relates to the central government’s modus operandi on food safety (h7) and the twelve years primary education reform (h8).
- The study also utilized the OPLS-DA model to make the classification analysis by using h1 as the target variable and found the major nodes in the classification results were h7, h8 and h2.
- As far as our research models are concerned, we conclude that the satisfaction with the integrity performance of the central government (h2), satisfaction with the central government’s modus operandi on food safety (h7), satisfaction with the central government’s policies on the twelve years primary education reform (h8) influence the Taiwanese civilians’ satisfaction with the central government, which is closely related to political sustainability. It can be inferred from the results of the study that the major factors which affect the civilians’ satisfaction with the central government are inclusive of the levels of the civilians’ satisfaction with the educational and food safety policies and the central government’s integrity. However, the Sunflower Movement only has a limited impact. Taiwan’s experience can be the example for other governments because the temporary social movement would not definitely influence the support of the central government, and it can only affect the formulation of the emerging political power . It also suggests that the Taiwanese government needs to improve its governance ability and public opinion feedback in order to achieve the political sustainability.
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|1 Comps||2 Comps||3 Comps||4 Comps||5 Comps||6 Comps||7 Comps||8 Comps|
|Component 1||Component 2||Model VIP|
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