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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 280;

Sustainability Index Evaluation of the Rainwater Harvesting System in Six US Urban Cities

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology, Water Quality and Ecology)
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This study investigated the sustainability of the rainwater harvesting system (RWHS) by analyzing six urban city sites with different rainfall statistics in the United States. We developed a new RWHS performance model by modifying a spreadsheet-based storage, treatment, and overflow runoff model (SS STORM) and verified its performance by comparing with another analytical RWHS model. The sustainability index (SI) evaluation method was used for a reservoir system and applied to the RWHS, employing modified resilience and vulnerability evaluation methods due to the different characteristics of a reservoir and the RWHS. The performance of modified SS STORM is very similar to that of the analytical method, except in Los Angeles, which is characterized by long inter-event times and low rainfall event depths due to low annual rainfall. The sustainability indices were successfully evaluated depending on both RWHS size and water demand and vary over a wide range as annual rainfall increases. This study proposes a new RWHS performance model and sustainability index evaluation method. Further study should confirm the proposed approach in regions with widely different rainfall characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: analytical method; modified SS STORM; reliability; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability analytical method; modified SS STORM; reliability; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability

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Park, D.; Um, M.-J. Sustainability Index Evaluation of the Rainwater Harvesting System in Six US Urban Cities. Sustainability 2018, 10, 280.

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