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Article

An Exploratory Study on Information Manipulation by Doctors: Awareness, Actual State, and Ethical Tolerance

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Department of Medical Ethics and Patient Safety, Keio University Keio Research Institute at SFC, 4411 Endo, Fujisawa 252-0883, Japan
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Course for Health Care Management and Public Health, Graduate School of Health Management, Keio University, 4411 Endo, Fujisawa 252-0883, Japan
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Department of Biomedical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
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Graduate School of Welfare and Health Sciences, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192, Japan
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Comprehensive Research Organization, Institute for Global Health, Waseda University, 1-3-10 Nishiwaseda Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0051, Japan
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Department of Clinical Oral Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto1-7-1, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan
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Division of Medical Ethics, School of Medicine, New York University, 227 East 30th Street, New York, NY 10016, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Myeong Soo Lee, Giorgina Piccoli and Anna Capasso
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(5), 723-733; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12050075
Received: 17 June 2022 / Revised: 17 August 2022 / Accepted: 6 September 2022 / Published: 8 September 2022
(1) Background: To what extent is information manipulation by doctors acceptable? To answer this question, we conducted an exploratory study aimed at obtaining basic data on descriptive ethics for considering this issue. (2) Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a large sample (n = 3305) of doctors. The participants were queried on (1) whether they consider that information manipulation is necessary (awareness), (2) whether they have actually manipulated information (actual state), and (3) their ethical tolerance. (3) Result: The response rate was 28.7%. Sixty percent of the doctors responded that information manipulation to avoid harm to patients is necessary (awareness), that they have actually manipulated information (actual state), and that information manipulation is ethically acceptable. (4) Conclusion: While the present survey was conducted among doctors in Japan, previous studies have reported similar findings in the United States and Europe. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that a relationship of trust between patients and medical personnel is crucial and that information manipulation is not needed when such a relationship has been established. View Full-Text
Keywords: informed consent; information manipulation; truth-telling; prognosis disclosure; patient-doctor relationship; trust; Japan informed consent; information manipulation; truth-telling; prognosis disclosure; patient-doctor relationship; trust; Japan
MDPI and ACS Style

Maeda, S.; Nakazawa, E.; Kamishiraki, E.; Ishikawa, E.; Murata, M.; Mori, K.; Akabayashi, A. An Exploratory Study on Information Manipulation by Doctors: Awareness, Actual State, and Ethical Tolerance. Clin. Pract. 2022, 12, 723-733. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12050075

AMA Style

Maeda S, Nakazawa E, Kamishiraki E, Ishikawa E, Murata M, Mori K, Akabayashi A. An Exploratory Study on Information Manipulation by Doctors: Awareness, Actual State, and Ethical Tolerance. Clinics and Practice. 2022; 12(5):723-733. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12050075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maeda, Shoichi, Eisuke Nakazawa, Etsuko Kamishiraki, Eri Ishikawa, Maho Murata, Katsumi Mori, and Akira Akabayashi. 2022. "An Exploratory Study on Information Manipulation by Doctors: Awareness, Actual State, and Ethical Tolerance" Clinics and Practice 12, no. 5: 723-733. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12050075

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