A broad spectrum of lesions, including hyperplastic, metaplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and reactive, may mimic cancer all along the urinary tract. This narrative collects most of them from a clinical and pathologic perspective, offering urologists and general pathologists their most salient definitory features. Together with classical, well-known, entities such as urothelial papillomas (conventional (UP) and inverted (IUP)), nephrogenic adenoma (NA), polypoid cystitis (PC), fibroepithelial polyp (FP), prostatic-type polyp (PP), verumontanum cyst (VC), xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XI), reactive changes secondary to BCG instillations (BCGitis), schistosomiasis (SC), keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia (KSM), post-radiation changes (PRC), vaginal-type metaplasia (VM), endocervicosis (EC)/endometriosis (EM) (müllerianosis), malakoplakia (MK), florid von Brunn nest proliferation (VB), cystitis/ureteritis cystica (CC), and glandularis (CG), among others, still other cellular proliferations with concerning histological features and poorly understood etiopathogenesis like IgG4-related disease (IGG4), PEComa (PEC), and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations (post-operative spindle cell nodule (POS), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT)), are reviewed. Some of these diagnoses are problematic for urologists, other for pathologists, and still others for both. Interestingly, the right identification of their definitory features will allow their correct diagnoses, thus, avoiding overtreatment. The literature selected for this review also focuses on the immunohistochemical and/or molecular data useful to delineate prognosis.
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