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Mimickers of Urothelial Carcinoma and the Approach to Differential Diagnosis

Department of Pathology, San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, 10154 Turin, Italy
Clinical Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, European University of Madrid, 28907 Getafe, Spain
Department of Urology, University Hospital of Getafe, 28905 Getafe, Spain
Department of Pathology, Cruces University Hospital, Biocruces-Bizkaia Health Research Institute, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(1), 110-123;
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
A broad spectrum of lesions, including hyperplastic, metaplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and reactive, may mimic cancer all along the urinary tract. This narrative collects most of them from a clinical and pathologic perspective, offering urologists and general pathologists their most salient definitory features. Together with classical, well-known, entities such as urothelial papillomas (conventional (UP) and inverted (IUP)), nephrogenic adenoma (NA), polypoid cystitis (PC), fibroepithelial polyp (FP), prostatic-type polyp (PP), verumontanum cyst (VC), xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XI), reactive changes secondary to BCG instillations (BCGitis), schistosomiasis (SC), keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia (KSM), post-radiation changes (PRC), vaginal-type metaplasia (VM), endocervicosis (EC)/endometriosis (EM) (müllerianosis), malakoplakia (MK), florid von Brunn nest proliferation (VB), cystitis/ureteritis cystica (CC), and glandularis (CG), among others, still other cellular proliferations with concerning histological features and poorly understood etiopathogenesis like IgG4-related disease (IGG4), PEComa (PEC), and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations (post-operative spindle cell nodule (POS), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT)), are reviewed. Some of these diagnoses are problematic for urologists, other for pathologists, and still others for both. Interestingly, the right identification of their definitory features will allow their correct diagnoses, thus, avoiding overtreatment. The literature selected for this review also focuses on the immunohistochemical and/or molecular data useful to delineate prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary tract; pseudotumor; diagnosis; symptoms; histology urinary tract; pseudotumor; diagnosis; symptoms; histology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Manini, C.; Angulo, J.C.; López, J.I. Mimickers of Urothelial Carcinoma and the Approach to Differential Diagnosis. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 110-123.

AMA Style

Manini C, Angulo JC, López JI. Mimickers of Urothelial Carcinoma and the Approach to Differential Diagnosis. Clinics and Practice. 2021; 11(1):110-123.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manini, Claudia; Angulo, Javier C.; López, José I. 2021. "Mimickers of Urothelial Carcinoma and the Approach to Differential Diagnosis" Clin. Pract. 11, no. 1: 110-123.

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