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Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination, Mold Incidence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin in Maize Kernels Originating from Nepal

1
Graduate School, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
3
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Singhadurbar, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
4
Scientific Equipment and Research Division, Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salam A. Ibrahim
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(2), 258-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13020021
Received: 17 April 2022 / Revised: 3 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 15 May 2022
Occurrence of mycotoxins in staple foods is a major threat to attaining food safety in developing countries. The study investigated multi-mycotoxin contamination for the first time in Nepalese maize along with the incidence of molds in 45 samples of maize used as human food from 45 districts of Nepal. The samples were analyzed quantitatively for the presence of five different mycotoxins (total aflatoxins (AF), total fumonisins (FUM), ochratoxin (OT), zearalenone (ZEA) and (DON) deoxynivalenol) using the competitive direct ELISA technique. The most frequent occurrences were for DON (100%) and AF (78%) followed by FUM and ZEA (both 76%) and OT (62%). Interestingly, all the samples contained at least two mycotoxins while at least three or more mycotoxins were found in 87% of the samples. The most commonly reported binary, ternary and quaternary combinations were DON+AF, AF+FUM+DON and AF+FUM+ZEA+DON, respectively. The mean percentage kernel mold infection was 35.33% with Fusarium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium genera being the predominant molds. Six different species of Aspergillus and a single species of Fusarium were identified. The estimated daily intake, margin of exposure and risk of liver cancer from consuming maize were 30.46 ng/kg bw/day and 5.58 and 0.38 cancer cases/year/100,000 population, respectively. Since maize is the second-most consumed cereal in Nepal, the contamination levels of various mycotoxins and the incidence of molds identified in the study suggests that stricter control is needed to safeguard the health of the substantial population consuming maize as a staple diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; maize; mycotoxins; toxicity; staple foods aflatoxin; maize; mycotoxins; toxicity; staple foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Joshi, P.; Chauysrinule, C.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Maneeboon, T. Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination, Mold Incidence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin in Maize Kernels Originating from Nepal. Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13, 258-277. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13020021

AMA Style

Joshi P, Chauysrinule C, Mahakarnchanakul W, Maneeboon T. Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination, Mold Incidence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin in Maize Kernels Originating from Nepal. Microbiology Research. 2022; 13(2):258-277. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13020021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Joshi, Prateek, Chananya Chauysrinule, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul, and Thanapoom Maneeboon. 2022. "Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination, Mold Incidence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin in Maize Kernels Originating from Nepal" Microbiology Research 13, no. 2: 258-277. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13020021

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