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Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota

1
Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
2
Functional Gut Diagnostics, Manchester M2 4NG, UK
3
The Functional Gut Clinic, London W1G 6NB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga and Yiannis Kourkoutas
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(2), 491-502; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres12020033
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 3 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a worldwide healthcare problem affecting approximately 25% of the global population. The most common IDA treatment is oral iron supplementation, which has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) side effects such as constipation and bloating. These can result in treatment non-adherence and the persistence of IDA. Intravenous iron does not cause GI side effects, which may be due to the lack of exposure to the intestinal lumen. Luminal iron can cause changes to the gut microbiota, aiding the promotion of pathogenic species and decreasing beneficial protective species. Iron is vital for methanogenic archaea, which rely on iron for growth and metabolism. Increased intestinal methane has been associated with slowing of intestinal transit, constipation, and bloating. Here we explore the literature to understand a potential link between iron and methanogenesis as a novel way to understand the mechanism of oral iron supplementation induced GI side effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron; constipation; bloating; methane; methanogens; gut microbiota iron; constipation; bloating; methane; methanogens; gut microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bloor, S.R.; Schutte, R.; Hobson, A.R. Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota. Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12, 491-502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres12020033

AMA Style

Bloor SR, Schutte R, Hobson AR. Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota. Microbiology Research. 2021; 12(2):491-502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres12020033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bloor, Sarah R., Rudolph Schutte, and Anthony R. Hobson. 2021. "Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota" Microbiology Research 12, no. 2: 491-502. https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres12020033

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