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Review

Studying Epigenetics of Cardiovascular Diseases on Chip Guide

1
Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, King Fahad Aramed Fornce Hospital, Jeddah 23311, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Biotechnology, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
3
Centre for Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Limongelli
Cardiogenetics 2022, 12(3), 218-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics12030021
Received: 14 May 2022 / Revised: 30 June 2022 / Accepted: 5 July 2022 / Published: 7 July 2022
Epigenetics is defined as the study of inheritable changes in the gene expressions and phenotypes that occurs without altering the normal DNA sequence. These changes are mainly due to an alteration in chromatin or its packaging, which changes the DNA accessibility. DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding or microRNAs can best explain the mechanism of epigenetics. There are various DNA methylated enzymes, histone-modifying enzymes, and microRNAs involved in the cause of various CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) such as cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Moreover, various CVD risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypoxia, aging, dyslipidemia, and their epigenetics are also discussed together with CVDs such as CHD (coronary heart disease) and PAH (pulmonary arterial hypertension). Furthermore, different techniques involved in epigenetic chromatin mapping are explained. Among these techniques, the ChIP-on-chip guide is explained with regard to its role in cardiac hypertrophy, a final form of heart failure. This review focuses on different epigenetic factors that are involved in causing cardiovascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone modifications; microRNAs; ChIP-on-chip guide cardiovascular diseases; epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone modifications; microRNAs; ChIP-on-chip guide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alghamdi, B.A.; Aljohani, I.M.; Alotaibi, B.G.; Ahmed, M.; Almazmomi, K.A.; Aloufi, S.; Alshamrani, J. Studying Epigenetics of Cardiovascular Diseases on Chip Guide. Cardiogenetics 2022, 12, 218-234. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics12030021

AMA Style

Alghamdi BA, Aljohani IM, Alotaibi BG, Ahmed M, Almazmomi KA, Aloufi S, Alshamrani J. Studying Epigenetics of Cardiovascular Diseases on Chip Guide. Cardiogenetics. 2022; 12(3):218-234. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics12030021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alghamdi, Bandar Ali, Intisar Mahmoud Aljohani, Bandar Ghazi Alotaibi, Muhammad Ahmed, Kholod Abduallah Almazmomi, Salman Aloufi, and Jowhra Alshamrani. 2022. "Studying Epigenetics of Cardiovascular Diseases on Chip Guide" Cardiogenetics 12, no. 3: 218-234. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics12030021

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