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The Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Study of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MENZACS): Design and Methodology

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Heart Health Research Group, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Greenlane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Christchurch Heart Institute, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
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Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Middlemore Hospital, Counties Manukau District Health Board, Auckland 2025, New Zealand
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Gisborne Hospital, Tairawhiti District Health Board, Gisborne 4010, New Zealand
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Tauranga Hospital, Bay of Plenty District Health Board, Tauranga 3112, New Zealand
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North Shore Hospital, Waitemata District Health Board, Auckland 0620, New Zealand
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Centre for Health, Tauranga 3112, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George E. Louridas
Cardiogenetics 2021, 11(2), 84-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020010
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
Background. Each year, approximately 5000 New Zealanders are admitted to hospital with first-time acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Study of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MENZACS) is a prospective longitudinal cohort study embedded within the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry in six hospitals. The objective of MENZACS is to examine the relationship between clinical, genomic, and cardiometabolic markers in relation to presentation and outcomes post-ACS. Methods. Patients with first-time ACS are enrolled and study-specific research data is collected alongside the ANZACS-QI registry. The research blood samples are stored for future genetic/biomarker assays. Dietary information is collected with a food frequency questionnaire and information about physical activity, smoking, and stress is also collected via questionnaire. Detailed family history, ancestry, and ethnicity data are recorded on all participants. Results. During the period between 2015 and 2019, there were 2015 patients enrolled. The mean age was 61 years, with 60% of patients aged <65 years and 21% were female. Ethnicity and cardiovascular (CV) risk factor distribution was similar to ANZACS-QI: 13% Māori, 5% Pacific, 5% Indian, and 74% NZ European. In terms of CV risk factors, 56% were ex-/current smokers, 42% had hypertension, and 19% had diabetes. ACS subtype was ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 41%, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEM) in 54%, and unstable angina in 5%. Ninety-nine percent of MENZACS participants underwent coronary angiography and 90% had revascularization; there were high rates of prescription of secondary prevention medications upon discharge from hospital. Conclusion. MENZACS represents a cohort with optimal contemporary management and will be a significant epidemiological bioresource for the study of environmental and genetic factors contributing to ACS in New Zealand’s multi-ethnic environment. The study will utilise clinical, nutritional, lifestyle, genomic, and biomarker analyses to explore factors influencing the progression of coronary disease and develop risk prediction models for health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: MENZACS; acute coronary syndrome; multi-ethnic; genomics; study design MENZACS; acute coronary syndrome; multi-ethnic; genomics; study design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Legget, M.E.; Cameron, V.A.; Poppe, K.K.; Aish, S.; Earle, N.; Choi, Y.; Bradbury, K.E.; Wall, C.; Stewart, R.; Kerr, A.; Harrison, W.; Devlin, G.; Troughton, R.; Richards, A.M.; Porter, G.; Gladding, P.; Rolleston, A.; Doughty, R.N. The Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Study of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MENZACS): Design and Methodology. Cardiogenetics 2021, 11, 84-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020010

AMA Style

Legget ME, Cameron VA, Poppe KK, Aish S, Earle N, Choi Y, Bradbury KE, Wall C, Stewart R, Kerr A, Harrison W, Devlin G, Troughton R, Richards AM, Porter G, Gladding P, Rolleston A, Doughty RN. The Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Study of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MENZACS): Design and Methodology. Cardiogenetics. 2021; 11(2):84-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Legget, Malcolm. E.; Cameron, Vicky. A.; Poppe, Katrina. K.; Aish, Sara; Earle, Nikki; Choi, Yeunhyang; Bradbury, Kathryn. E.; Wall, Clare; Stewart, Ralph; Kerr, Andrew; Harrison, Wil; Devlin, Gerry; Troughton, Richard; Richards, A. M.; Porter, Graeme; Gladding, Patrick; Rolleston, Anna; Doughty, Robert N. 2021. "The Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Study of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MENZACS): Design and Methodology" Cardiogenetics 11, no. 2: 84-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/cardiogenetics11020010

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