Next Article in Journal
Living Lab Electric vehicles Flanders (Belgium): The influence of testing an EV on the general appreciation of electric mobility
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a New Concept Electric Vehicle for Last Mile Transportations
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Cooperative Control Algorithm for Friction and Regenerative Braking Systems Considering Temperature Characteristics

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 440-746,Korea
Hyundai Motor Company, 772-1 Jangduk-dong, Hwanseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-706, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(2), 287-298;
Published: 26 June 2015
PDF [1004 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


In a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the braking system is composed of friction braking and regenerative braking. When a driver presses the brake pedal, each braking system collaborates and applies braking torque. The friction brake is a hydraulic system which has a slow response time and the regenerative brake is an electric system which responds quickly. Such characteristics bring a control problem, especially transient characteristic of shifts between regenerative brake and friction brake, because the hydraulic system cannot follow the response time of the electric system. The friction braking torque is also governed by the friction coefficient which changes with temperature. This causes the braking torque to be generated differently with the demanded braking torque, without considering the temperature. Due to these problems, the driver would feel uncomfortable and the vehicle would be unstable resulting from the difference in response time and variance of the friction coefficient when pressing the brake pedal. Hence, it is essential to coincide the settling time of friction and regenerative braking system regarding the temperature. To solve these problems, the hydraulic system was mathematically modelled using the flow and continuity equations and the electric system was modelled using the d-q transformation and voltage equation. The temperature estimation model of the brake components was developed using the heat transfer methods which are conduction, convection and semi-infinite solid. The brake temperature was calculated by the finite difference method (FDM). With the mathematical model of hydraulic and electric systems, the coincidence control for the settling time of both systems was established. It was also possible to find the friction coefficient and calculate the braking torque by using the temperature estimator. In this paper, the numerical simulation was carried out to verify these control algorithms. The difference in response time between friction and regenerative braking system was reduced and the transient characteristic was improved. Also, the braking torque was compensated with the temperature, and the difference between demanded and actual braking torque lessen using the algorithms.
Keywords: Friction braking system; Regenerative braking system; Coincidence control; Compensation algorithm Friction braking system; Regenerative braking system; Coincidence control; Compensation algorithm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kwon, M.; Park, J.; Gwak, G.; Huh, J.; Hwang, S.-H. Cooperative Control Algorithm for Friction and Regenerative Braking Systems Considering Temperature Characteristics. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 287-298.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top