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Electric Vehicles – Personal transportation for the future
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Characterising Li-ion battery degradation through the identification of perturbations in electrochemical battery models

WMG, International Digital Laboratory, The University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Maplesoft Europe Ltd, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thompson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 OFA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(1), 76-84;
Published: 27 March 2015
PDF [328 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


Lithium ion batteries undergo complex electrochemical and mechanical degradation. This complexity is pronounced in applications such as electric vehicles where highly demanding cycles of operation and varying environmental conditions lead to non-trivial interactions of ageing stress factors. This work presents the framework for an ageing diagnostic tool based on identifying the physical parameters of a fundamental electrochemistry-based battery model from non-invasive voltage/current cycling tests. Exploiting the embedded symbolic manipulation tool and global optimiser in MapleSim, computational cost is reduced, significantly facilitating rapid optimisation. The diagnostic tool is used to study the degradation of a 3Ah LiC6/LiNiCoAlO2 battery stored at 45℃ at 50% State of Charge for 202 days; the results agree with expected battery degradation.
Keywords: Li-ion battery; ageing; EV; modelling; parameterisation Li-ion battery; ageing; EV; modelling; parameterisation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Uddin, K.; Perera, S.; Widanage, W.D.; Marco, J. Characterising Li-ion battery degradation through the identification of perturbations in electrochemical battery models. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 76-84.

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