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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Thermal Model Developments for Electrified Vehicles

Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL60439, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(1), 114-120;
Published: 27 March 2015
PDF [914 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


Argonne National Laboratory has analyzed the control behavior of advanced vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), to develop simulation models and to reproduce the performance of vehicles with simulation techniques. Since many of the novel and advanced studies about transportation technologies done at Argonne use these simulation techniques, they must be well-validated to conduct and support these studies. To improve its research ability, Argonne built a new testing facility that can test vehicles under different thermal conditions (e.g., –7°C or 35°C), and it has analyzed the controls and performance of several advanced vehicles under these conditions. Further, Argonne has used the analyzed results to develop thermal component models that reproduce the thermal behavior of the vehicles. A main reason to develop thermal models is that the thermal conditions have such a significantly large impact on vehicle performance, especially with regard to advanced vehicles like HEVs or PHEVs. For instance, engine and battery efficiencies must decrease at low temperatures since the battery might not be able to provide enough power if it is very cold. Moreover, the climate control system still has a great demand for additional energy under very cold weather conditions even if the engine is not operating at all. The test data obtained from Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) are analyzed in order to understand the thermal impacts on controls and performance, and the thermal models are developed based on the analyzed results and validated with the test data. In comparative studies, the simulation models have been found to reproduce fuel consumption that is very close to the fuel consumption obtained from the tests.
Keywords: Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Thermal Model; Control; Dynamometer Test; Fuel Economy Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Thermal Model; Control; Dynamometer Test; Fuel Economy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Rousseau, A. Thermal Model Developments for Electrified Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 114-120.

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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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