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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

A Lumped Electro-Thermal Model for Li-Ion Cells in Electric Vehicle Application

1
TUM CREATE, Singapore
2
Technische Universität München, (TUM), Munich, Germany; Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Systems (EES)
3
Nanyang Technological University (NTU), school of electrical & electronic engineering
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7010001
Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract

A lumped Electro-thermal model of a large format high power Li-Ion cell is introduced in this paper. The model is able to meet the real time implementation requirements; hence it finds its application in Battery Management System (BMS) of an Electric Vehicle (EV). The model is evaluated in Hardware in the Loop (HIL) setup to verify online estimation of cell surface and internal temperature estimation for an on-board EV application. In this study, the cell is considered as a single homogeneous layer and the heat is generated in the centre point of the cell and flows in one direction towards the surface. For this modelling purpose, reversible and irreversible heat in the cell is considered. Irreversible heat consists of the Joule heating effect due to internal resistance of the cell, for instance these values are then calculated with sufficient electrical cell model and evaluated both offline and in real time calculation. Reversible heat is a result of entropy effect which can be negative or a positive value depending on the direction of current flow during charging and discharging process of the cell. Other heat transfer mechanism such as conductive heat transfer and convective heat transfer are also included into the model. This paper introduces a reference case test used to calculate the required necessary coefficients both for parameterization of electrical model and thermal model. The battery setup in the laboratory for measuring the cell surface temperature as reference data as well as cell sandwich setup for evaluating the internal temperature of the cells is explained in detail. Fundamental equations to develop the thermal model are introduced and the model is evaluated in both offline and real time mode.
Keywords: Li-Ion cell; Equivalent circuit model; Thermal model; Battery management system; Hardware in the loop Li-Ion cell; Equivalent circuit model; Thermal model; Battery management system; Hardware in the loop
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Makinejad, K.; Arunachala, R.; Arnold, S.; Ennifar, H.; Zhou, H.; Jossen, A.; Changyun, W. A Lumped Electro-Thermal Model for Li-Ion Cells in Electric Vehicle Application. World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7, 1-13.

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