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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Effect of demand response on the marginal electricity used by plug-in electric vehicles

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research. Contact address: Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe, Germany
Argonne National Laboratory, Transportation Technology R&D Center
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(3), 730-738;
Published: 28 September 2012
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Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to be a potentially sustainable alternative to conventional vehicles for private transport and a way of balancing intermittent generation from renewable energy sources (RES). Using RES for electric mobility would be superior to all available fossil generation alternatives in terms of emissions and efficient energy conversion. To quantify the marginal energy from RES used, two charging strategies last trip charging and optimized demand-side management (DSM) with dynamic pricing are investigated for a German long-term high RES power mix scenario. The results for both charging cases indicate that the power demand for PEVs will not be met by RES. For last trip charging 1.40% comes from RES. In terms of DSM this share increases to 7.38% but results in higher overall CO2 emissions because for Germany coal provides the lowest cost fossil power. Hence DSM charging reduces peak load and helps to balance RES generation but is contrary to the original idea of clean transportation because of higher marginal emissions caused by the utilisation of coal. To account for contractual arrangements allowing consumers to directly purchase RES electricity, a second scenario with additional installed RES capacity is analysed. Because of the high RES share of over 50 % a complete usage of the RES is not possible and a small fraction of power must still be provided by dispatchable power plants. For the second scenario, DSM charging also allows for an increased use of RES compared to last trip charging (99 % versus 90% RES). In addition, total marginal CO2 emissions are lower and DSM helps to balance the ramping of RES. Therefore, it is concluded that for Germany the installation of additional RES and DSM charging would guarantee clean transportation using electric vehicles.
Keywords: Plug-in electric vehicles; CO2 emissions; renewable energy supply Plug-in electric vehicles; CO2 emissions; renewable energy supply
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Dallinger, D.; Wietschel, M.; Santini, D.J. Effect of demand response on the marginal electricity used by plug-in electric vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 730-738.

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