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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Design Methodology of Energy Storage Systems for a Small Electric Vehicle

1
IPC-ISEC, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, Coimbra, Portugal
2
DEEC – FCTUC, University of Coimbra - Pólo II, P-3030-290 Coimbra, Portugal
3
INESC-Coimbra, Institute for Systems and Computers Engineering at Coimbra, Portugal
4
APVE, Portuguese Electric Vehicle Association Portuguese Branch of AVERE, Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(4), 670-681; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3040670
Published: 25 December 2009
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Abstract

With the current state of technological development, the future of Electric Vehicles (EVs) seems to go through the hybridization of various Energy Storage Systems (ESSs). This strategy seeks to benefit from the best qualities of each available energy source, and is especially useful in urban driving. In this work, the need for multiple energy sources hybridization is addressed. A methodology to optimize the sizing of the ESSs for an electric vehicle taking as example the ISEC-VEIL project, using different driving cycles, maximum speed, a specified acceleration, energy regeneration and gradeability requests are presented. It is also studied the possibility of using a backup system based on solar energy, that may be considered in the design, or as an extra to cope with unforeseen routines and to minimize the recharge of ESSs. Some simulation results of multiple energy sources hybridization are presented, considering different ESSs and different scenarios for the small presented EV, in order to verify the proposed designs.
Keywords: Neighborhood Electric vehicle (NEV); optimization; energy storages; battery electric vehicle (BEV); cost reduction Neighborhood Electric vehicle (NEV); optimization; energy storages; battery electric vehicle (BEV); cost reduction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Trovão, J.P.; Pereirinha, P.G.; Jorge, H.M. Design Methodology of Energy Storage Systems for a Small Electric Vehicle. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 670-681.

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