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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Analysis of the Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Residential Distribution Grids by using Quadratic and Dynamic Programming

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10 Box 2445, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
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World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 214-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020214
Published: 26 June 2009
The charging of batteries of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles at home at standard outlets has an impact on the distribution grid which may require serious investments in grid expansion. The coordination of the charging gives an improvement of the grid exploitation in terms of reduced power losses and voltage deviations with respect to uncoordinated charging. The vehicles must be dispatchable to achieve the most efficient solution. As the exact forecasting of household loads is not possible, stochastic programming is introduced. Two main techniques are analyzed in this paper: quadratic and dynamic programming. Both techniques are compared in results and storage requirements. The charging can be coordinated directly or indirectly by the grid utility or an aggregator who will sell the aggregated demand of PHEVs at the utility. PHEVs can also discharge and so inject energy in the grid to restrict voltage drops. The amount of energy that is injected in the grid depends on the price tariffs, the charging and discharging efficiencies and the battery energy content. The impact of a voltage controller embedded in a PHEV charger is regarded in this paper. A day and night tariff are applied. The charging and discharging of vehicles can respond to real-time pricing or on a price-schedule as well. Voltage control is the first step in the utilization of distributed resources like PHEVs for ancillary services.
Keywords: Charging; Energy; Optimization; Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Charging; Energy; Optimization; Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
MDPI and ACS Style

Clement-Nyns, K.; Haesen, E.; Driesen, J. Analysis of the Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Residential Distribution Grids by using Quadratic and Dynamic Programming. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 214-224.

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