# Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrogen-Based Hybrid Energy Storage System with a Switching Algorithm

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{®}Simulink

^{®}. In this paper, we mainly focus on the modelling and simulation of the proposed system. The results showcase the simulated system’s mentioned advantages and compare its ability to handle loads to a battery-only system.

## 1. Introduction

^{®}Simulink

^{®}.

^{®}Simulink

^{®}. The result is the combined system’s mathematical model, which includes an electrolyser, fuel cell, necessary hydrogen, oxygen, and water tanks and the parallel control algorithm modelled in the simulation.

- The main focus is on the topology of the proposed system and not on its current practical viability.
- The design, however, strives to include the practical auxiliary losses of such a system to the extent that mathematical modelling allows it to. This is to ensure a small step toward similarity and closeness to real-world results to try to showcase the solidarity of the proposed system.
- We demonstrate the operation of the proposed system in a test condition with various scenarios to showcase its robust design.
- We also try to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed system as compared with a battery-only system.

## 2. Proposed System

**Charging**When a power supply from the grid is available, the electrolyser is switched on to produce hydrogen and the battery is charged simultaneously until they are both full. If a load is connected to the system during the charging process, then, the load is also switched to be directly connected in parallel to the grid. This ensures that the power is not wasted due to auxiliary losses of the cycle, and instead directly powers the load.**Start**When there is no load connected (with no power supply), the fuel cell is switched on. To support the slow start-up time of the fuel cell, the switching control turns on the battery to support the transient.**Stable supply**When the fuel cell is capable of supporting the load stably, the switching control disconnects the battery. When there is a load transient, the switching control connects the battery to handle the transient.**Recharge battery**When the battery state of charge is below a particular threshold, the switching control connects the fuel cell to charge and replenish the battery to a certain SOC value. The switching control checks the fuel availability before connecting the battery. Additionally, the fuel cell is allowed to charge the battery only when it is either able to stably supply a load or when it is not connected to a load at all. This is to ensure that the battery is always available to support the fuel cell during load transients.

## 3. System Components

#### 3.1. Buck Converter

#### 3.2. Fuel Cell

#### 3.3. Electrolyser

^{®}Simulink

^{®}. The equivalent circuit of the electrolyser is shown in Figure 3. The expected output from the electrolyser is the hydrogen production rate, given in Equation (8) [13]. The amount of hydrogen produced by the electrolyser depends on the current drawn by the electrolyser and the molar volume of hydrogen. The formula for molar volume is given in Equation (9):

#### 3.4. Storage Tanks: H_{2}/O_{2}/H_{2}O

^{®}Simulink

^{®}based on the instantaneous pressure of the tank given by Equation (10), and the formula for the compressibility factor is given in Equation (11) (the tanks modelled in the system are purely mathematical and do not replicate any of the specified tank systems):

_{2}and O

_{2}consumption and H

_{2}O production are given by Equations (15)–(17):

_{2}and O

_{2}production and H

_{2}O consumption are given by the Equations (18)–(20) [7]:

#### 3.5. Control Algorithm

## 4. Simulation

#### 4.1. System Simulink Models

#### 4.2. Simulation of Comparison Test

^{®}. Figure 12 shows the adopted WLTC drive cycle and Figure 13 shows the simulation design for the test.

^{®}Nexa 1.2 kW Fuel Cell, Exicom

^{®}2 kWh Li-ion battery, Bosch

^{®}750Wh battery, and Quantum Fuel Systems

^{®}1 kg hydrogen tank [47,48,49,50,51]. The values are considered purely for virtual comparison purposes and not to compare with a real-world scenario. Table 2 displays the specifications in a compiled fashion.

## 5. Results and Discussions

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

L1 | Buck converter design inductance (mH) |

C1 | Buck converter design conductance (μF) |

V_{out} | Buck converter output voltage (V) |

D | Duty cycle |

f_{sw} | Switching frequency (Hz) |

ΔI_{L} | Current ripple (A) |

ΔV_{out} | Voltage ripple (V) |

E_{n} | Nernst voltage (V) |

T_{FC} | Fuel cell operating temperature (T) |

z | Number of moving electrons |

F | Faraday’s constant |

P_{H2} | Partial pressure of hydrogen (atm) |

P_{O2} | Partial pressure of oxygen (atm) |

F | Faraday’s constant |

E_{OC} | Open circuit voltage (V) |

K_{C} | voltage constant at nominal condition |

E | Fuel Cell Voltage Source (V) |

A | Tafel Slope (V) |

i_{O} | Exchange current (A) |

T_{d} | Response time (s) |

V_{FC} | Fuel Cell output voltage (V) |

R_{ohm} | Internal resistance (Ω) |

α | Charge Transfer Coefficient |

V_{H} | Amount of Hydrogen produced by Electrolyser (mL/min) |

V_{m} | Molar volume of hydrogen |

R | Universal gas constant (J mol/K) |

T_{EL} | Operating temperature of electrolyser (C) |

P_{EL} | Operating pressure of electrolyser (atm) |

P_{t} | Hydrogen tank pressure (Pascals) |

P_{ti} | Hydrogen tank initial pressure (Pascals) |

Z_{C} | Compressibility Factor |

N_{H}_{2} | Amount of hydrogen fed to the tank (mL/min) |

T_{t} | Temperature of tank (K) |

M_{H}_{2} | Molar mass of hydrogen (kg/mol) |

V_{t} | Volume of tank (m^{3}) |

Q_{H}_{2} | Quantity of hydrogen in tank (mL/min) |

Q_{O}_{2} | Quantity of oxygen in tank (mL/min) |

Q_{H}_{2O} | Quantity of water in tank (mL/min) |

${F}_{H2}^{p}$ | Hydrogen produced (mL/min) |

${F}_{H2}^{c}$ | Hydrogen consumed (mL/min) |

${F}_{O2}^{p}$ | Oxygen produced (mL/min) |

${F}_{O2}^{c}$ | Oxygen consumed (mL/min) |

${F}_{H2O}^{p}$ | Water produced (mL/min) |

${F}_{H2O}^{c}$ | Water consumed (mL/min) |

L_{H}_{2} | Hydrogen loss |

L_{O}_{2} | Oxygen loss |

S^{H}^{2} | Stochiometric ratio of hydrogen |

S^{O}^{2} | Stochiometric ratio of oxygen |

S^{H}^{2O} | Stochiometric ratio of water |

N_{FC} | Number of cells in Fuel cell stack |

I_{FC} | Fuel cell current (A) |

η_{FC} | Fuel cell efficiency |

N_{EL} | Number of cells in Electrolyser stack |

I_{EL} | Electrolyser current (A) |

η_{EL} | Electrolyser efficiency |

h | Planck’s constant |

k | Boltzmann constant |

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Case | INPUT | OUTPUT | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

IN | OUT | FS | BS | EL | FC | BI | IL | |

1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

2 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 |

3 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

4 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

5 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

6 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

7 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

8 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

9 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

10 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

11 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

12 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

13 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

Vehicle Specifications | |||

Kerb weight | 30 kg | ||

Driver weight | 70 kg | ||

Tire radius | 0.28 m | ||

Hybrid System | Battery-Only System | ||

Rated power | 2 kW | Rated power | 2 kW |

Capacity | 33.7 kWh | Capacity | 2 kWh |

Mass | 34 kg | Mass | 16 kg |

Volume | 108.4 L | Volume | 8.53 L |

Fuel Cell Rating | Battery Rating | ||

Nominal voltage | 24 V | Nominal voltage | 24 V |

Rated power | 1259 W | Rated capacity | 30 Ah |

Electrolyser Rating | Hybrid System Rating | ||

Operating voltage | 24 V | Operating voltage | 24 V |

Rated power | 1 kW | Rated power | 2 kW |

Rated capacity | 33 kWh + 0.7 kWh |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ram, V.; Infantraj; Salkuti, S.R.
Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrogen-Based Hybrid Energy Storage System with a Switching Algorithm. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2022**, *13*, 188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100188

**AMA Style**

Ram V, Infantraj, Salkuti SR.
Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrogen-Based Hybrid Energy Storage System with a Switching Algorithm. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2022; 13(10):188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100188

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ram, Vishal, Infantraj, and Surender Reddy Salkuti.
2022. "Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrogen-Based Hybrid Energy Storage System with a Switching Algorithm" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 13, no. 10: 188.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100188