# Research on Establishment of Vehicle Energy Distribution Model and Energy Consumption Optimization Based on Electric Hybrid System

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Powertrain Layout and Powertrain Operation Features of Electric Hybrid System

#### 2.1. Powertrain Layout of Electric Hybrid System

#### 2.2. Powertrain Operation Features of Electric Hybrid System

## 3. Vehicle Energy Distribution Model

#### 3.1. Energy Distribution Model

#### 3.1.1. The Longitudinal Dynamic Model

#### 3.1.2. Engine Model

#### 3.1.3. Electric Drive Model

#### 3.1.4. Battery Model

#### 3.1.5. Recuperation Model and Accessory Model

#### 3.1.6. Control Strategy Model

#### 3.2. The Usage of Energy Distribution Model

## 4. Analysis of Energy Consumption Reduction Based on Software and Hardware Optimization

#### 4.1. Optimization Methods

#### 4.1.1. Voltage Boost Technology

#### 4.1.2. Control Strategy Optimization

#### 4.1.3. Theoretical Calculation and Bench Test

#### 4.2. Results of Hardware Optimization

#### 4.3. Results of Hardware and Software Optimization

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

EHS | Electric Hybrid System |

DHT | Dedicated Hybrid Transmission |

AER | All-Electric Range |

PHEV | Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle |

HEV | Hybrid-Electric Vehicle |

CD | Charged Deploying |

CS | Charge Sustaining |

OBC | Onboard Charger |

SOC | State of Charge |

OTA | Over-the-air (Technology) |

NEDC | New European Driving Cycle |

WLTC | Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle |

IPB | Integrated Power Brake |

## References

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**Figure 2.**Powertrain operation: (

**a**) Electric drive mode; (

**b**) Series hybrid drive mode; and (

**c**) Parallel hybrid drive mode.

**Figure 4.**Brake torque distribution: (

**a**) The brake force distribution between each shaft of the vehicle; (

**b**) The electric-hydraulic brake force distribution on each axle.

Model | Item | Specification |
---|---|---|

Engine | Type | L4 1.5L Atkinson |

Power | 81 kW | |

Torque | 135 N·m | |

Generator | Type | DC brushless motor |

Power | 70 kW | |

Torque | 90 N·m | |

Traction motor | Type | DC brushless motor |

Power | 132 kW | |

Torque | 316 N·m | |

Battery | Type | LiMPO_{4} |

Capacity | 8.32 kWh | |

Vehicle | All-Electric Range | 55/120 km |

Type | Sedan/SUV |

Test Cycle | Electricity (kWh) ^{1} | Fuel (kg) ^{2} | Energy Ratio (%) ^{3} | Energy Consumption (L/100 km) ^{4} |
---|---|---|---|---|

WLTC | −0.085 | 0.900 | −0.79 | 5.28 |

NEDC | 0.036 | 0.317 | 0.94 | 3.92 |

^{1}Electricity is the battery net power consumption.

^{2}Fuel is the cumulative fuel consumption.

^{3}Energy ratio is equal to the energy ratio of the battery net power consumption to the cumulative fuel consumption, and is displayed as a percentage. According to the requirements of the GB/T 19753-2021, when the value is in the range of plus or minus 1, the cumulative fuel consumption at this time can be used to calculate the vehicle energy consumption of this working condition.

^{4}The energy consumption is the simulation result, and expressed in liter per 100 km.

Test Cycle | Electricity (kWh) | Voltage (V) | Energy Consumption (kWh/100 km) ^{1} | Bench Test (kWh/100 km) | Error (%) ^{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

NEDC | 1.422 | 300 | 12.93 | 13.33 | −3.0 |

1.404 | 500 | 12.76 | 13.03 | −2.1 | |

1.363 | Voltage boost | 12.39 | 12.84 | −3.5 | |

WLTC | 3.431 | Voltage boost | 14.75 | 14.45 | 2.1 |

^{1}The energy consumption is the simulation result, expressed in kilowatt-hour per 100 km.

^{2}Error is equal to the ratio of the deviation between the simulation and the bench test result to the bench test result, displayed as a percentage.

Test Cycle | Electricity (kWh) | Voltage (V) | Fuel (kg) | Energy Ratio (%) | Energy Consumption (L/100 km) | Bench Test (L/100 km) | Error (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

WLTC | −0.085 | 300 | 0.900 | −0.79 | 5.28 | 5.59 | −4.9 |

−0.045 | 500 | 0.881 | −0.43 | 5.16 | 5.39 | −4.2 | |

−0.048 | 650 | 0.896 | −0.45 | 5.25 | 5.48 | −4.1 | |

0.086 | Voltage boost | 0.872 | 0.81 | 5.11 | 4.90 | 4.3 | |

NEDC | 0.032 | Voltage boost | 0.320 | 0.83 | 3.97 | 4.03 | −1.5 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Liang, P.; He, H.; Cui, H.; Zhang, M.
Research on Establishment of Vehicle Energy Distribution Model and Energy Consumption Optimization Based on Electric Hybrid System. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2021**, *12*, 213.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040213

**AMA Style**

Liang P, He H, Cui H, Zhang M.
Research on Establishment of Vehicle Energy Distribution Model and Energy Consumption Optimization Based on Electric Hybrid System. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2021; 12(4):213.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040213

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Liang, Peng, Huatuo He, Huafang Cui, and Minglang Zhang.
2021. "Research on Establishment of Vehicle Energy Distribution Model and Energy Consumption Optimization Based on Electric Hybrid System" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 12, no. 4: 213.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040213