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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401
Tesla Motors (formerly at NREL), 1050 Bing Street, San Carlos CA 94070
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work has been authored by an employee or employees of the Midwest Research Institute under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2007, 1(1), 294-301;
Published: 28 December 2007
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have emerged as a promising technology that uses electricity to displace petroleum consumption in the vehicle fleet. This paper presents a comparison of the costs (vehicle purchase costs and energy costs) and benefits (reduced petroleum consumption) of PHEVs relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles. A detailed simulation model is used to predict petroleum reductions and costs of PHEV designs compared to a baseline midsize sedan. The analysis finds that petroleum reductions exceeding 45% per vehicle can be achieved by PHEVs equipped with 20 mi (32 km) or more of energy storage. However, the long-term incremental costs of these vehicles are projected to exceed US$8,000. A simple economic analysis is used to show that high petroleum prices and low battery costs are needed to make a compelling business case for PHEVs in the absence of other incentives. However, the large petroleum reduction potential of PHEVs provides strong justification for governmental support to accelerate the deployment of PHEV technology.
Keywords: Plug-In Hybrid; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Battery; Modeling; Simulation; Energy Security Plug-In Hybrid; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Battery; Modeling; Simulation; Energy Security
MDPI and ACS Style

Markel, T.; Simpson, A. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology. World Electr. Veh. J. 2007, 1, 294-301.

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