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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd; Golden, CO 80401 USA
2
Tesla Motors Inc., 1050 Bing St.; San Carlos, CA 94070 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work has been authored by an employee or employees of the Midwest Research Institute under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2007, 1(1), 134-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj1010134
Published: 28 December 2007
PDF [422 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]

Abstract

Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs) have emerged as a promising alternative to reduce fleet petroleum consumption. However, quantifying PHEVs’ expected benefit is more challenging than with other vehicle technologies because they receive energy from two distinct sources and exhibit widely varying per-mile consumption based on the drive cycle and distance driven. This paper reviews various PHEV fuel economy characterization techniques, including the procedure formalized in the SAE J1711 Recommended Practice (issued in 1999). SAE J1711 accurately captures several critical reporting practices, including: using standardized drive cycles; considering charge depleting and charge sustaining operation; and using driving-statistic-derived utility-factor weighting to properly combine the vehicle’s operating modes. The authors’ proposed modifications to J1711 include: separately reporting fuel and electricity use; specifically measuring the vehicle’s charge depleting performance; and applying a once-daily charging assumption. As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) begins implementing changes to window-sticker fuel economy test procedures, and the original issuance of SAE J1711 expires, the authors hope to stimulate discussion and contribute to adoption of consensus reporting metrics. In order for the resulting metrics to be useful, stakeholders must be able to translate the numbers into sound predictions of relative vehicle energy cost, petroleum use, and potential carbon dioxide (CO2) production.
Keywords: Plug-in Hybrid; Grid-connected HEVs; Vehicle Performance; Energy Efficiency; Energy Consumption; Codes; Standards; Legislation; Regulations; Environmental Impact Plug-in Hybrid; Grid-connected HEVs; Vehicle Performance; Energy Efficiency; Energy Consumption; Codes; Standards; Legislation; Regulations; Environmental Impact
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gonder, J.; Simpson, A. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2007, 1, 134-141.

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