A Sign of Things to Come: Predicting the Perception of Above-the-Fold Time in Web Browsing
- Is it possible to develop a robust objective ATF metric with a consistent estimation behavior for both animated and non-animated content?
- Is it possible to integrate the proposed metric with SI to passively estimate the perceived performance of interactive web applications?
2.1. Structured Similarity Index Measure
3. Plausibly Complete Time (PCT)
3.1.1. Step 1: Preparation
3.1.2. Step 2: Computation
- SSIM quality map matrix () is computed (see step 2.1 in Figure 4) based on the current video frame (i) and the next frame (): . The and video frame share the same dimension (). Each value of the () represents the score of the similarity between the two corresponding pixels of two consecutive images (Section 2.1). As explained in Section 2.1, a score of 1 represents a pixel-wise 100% match, and an SSIM value of less than 1 shows a discrepancy between the two sets of input data.
- By applying a binary mask to the , a binary matrix () is computed to allow the frame of the accumulator matrix to be calculated (see step 2.2 in Figure 4). If the is 1 (100% similarity), the corresponding value of will be 0. For any other value, will be set to 1. As a result, represents the pixels that have been changed between the two video frames, regardless of the degree of similarity.
- Finally, a new binary accumulator matrix () is computed (see step 2.3 in Figure 4). It is achieved by performing a logical OR () between and the (). The computed () represents the number of pixels that have been changed at the current iteration.
3.1.3. Step 3: Estimation
|Algorithm 1: Plausibly Complete Time (PCT)|
- ATF time estimation.
- Its influence on the result of SI for different content types.
- PCT in the wild. The term “in the wild” is used to refer to unseen data collected by other researchers from globally accessible websites, under an undefined network condition and is not a synthetic dataset.
- The effect of using PCT on QoE estimation models.
4.1. PCT and the Estimation of ATF Time
4.2. The Influence of PCT on SpeedIndex (SI)
4.3. Impact of PCT on QoE Estimation
4.4. PCT in the Wild
4.5. Limitations and Future Enhancements
5. Discussion on SI, PCT, and the User’s Interactions
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Miller, M. Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications that Change the Way you Work and Collaborate Online; Que Publishing: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Miller, M. B2B digital Marketing: Using the Web to Market Directly to Businesses; Que Publishing: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Alreshoodi, M.; Woods, J. Survey on QoE/QoS correlation models for multimedia services. Int. J. Distrib. Parallel Syst. 2013, 4, 53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jahromi, H.Z.; Hines, A.; Delaney, D.T. Towards Application-Aware Networking: ML-Based End-to-End Application KPI/QoE Metrics Characterization in SDN. Available online: https://researchrepository.ucd.ie/rest/bitstreams/39947/retrieve (accessed on 12 February 2021).
- Callet, P.L.; Möller, S.; Perkis, A.E. Qualinet White Paper on Definitions of Quality of Experience. Available online: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00977812/document (accessed on 12 February 2021).
- da Hora, D.N.; Asrese, A.S.; Christophides, V.; Teixeira, R.; Rossi, D. Narrowing the Gap between QoS Metrics and Web QoE Using Above-the-Fold Metrics. Available online: https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01677260/document (accessed on 12 February 2021).
- Fiedler, M.; Hossfeld, T.; Tran-Gia, P. A generic quantitative relationship between quality of experience and quality of service. IEEE Netw. 2010, 24, 36–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Egger, S.; Reichl, P.; Hossfeld, T.; Schatz, R. “Time is bandwidth”? Narrowing the gap between subjective time perception and Quality of Experience. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Ottawa, ON, Canada, 10–15 June 2012. [Google Scholar]
- SpeedIndex (SI)—Google Developers. 2018. Available online: https://web.dev/speed-index/ (accessed on 10 December 2019).
- Jahromi, H.Z.; Delaney, D.T.; Hines, A. How Crisp is the Crease? A Subjective Study on Web Browsing Perception of Above-The-Fold. In Proceedings of the 2020 6th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft), Ghent, Belgium, 29 June–3 July 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Hossfeld, T.; Metzger, F.; Rossi, D. Speed index: Relating the industrial standard for user perceived web performance to Web QoE. In Proceedings of the 2018 Tenth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), Sardinia, Italy, 29–31 May 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Brutlag, J.; Abrams, Z.; Meenan, P. Above the fold time: Measuring web page performance visually. In Proceedings of the Velocity, the Web Performance and Operations conference, Santa Clara, CA, USA, 14–16 June 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Saverimoutou, A.; Mathieu, B.; Vaton, S. Web browsing measurements: An above-the-fold browser-based technique. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 38th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), Vienna, Austria, 2–5 July 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Da Hora, D.; Rossi, D.; Christophides, V.; Teixeira, R. A practical method for measuring Web above-the-fold time. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2018 Conference on Posters and Demos, Budapest, Hungary, 20–25 August 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Wang, Z.; Bovik, A.C.; Sheikh, H.R.; Simoncelli, E.P. Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2004, 13, 600–612. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Hore, A.; Ziou, D. Image quality metrics: PSNR vs. SSIM. In Proceedings of the 2010 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Istanbul, Turkey, 23–26 August 2010. [Google Scholar]
- McFadden, S.B.; Ward, P.A. Selecting the proper window for SSIM. In Proceedings of the Image Quality and System Performance IX, Burlingame, CA, USA, 24 January 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Nilsson, J.; Akenine-Möller, T. Understanding Ssim. Available online: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.13846.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2021).
- Grondin, S. Processing time between visual events. Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. 2003, 66, 96–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jahromi, H.Z.; Rooney, B.; Delaney, D.T.; Hines, A. Establishing Waiting Time Thresholds in Interactive Web Mapping Applications for Network QoE Management. In Proceedings of the 30th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC 2019), Maynooth, Ireland, 17–18 June 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Dehaene, S. The neural basis of the Weber–Fechner law: A logarithmic mental number line. Trends Cognit. Sci. 2003, 7, 145–147. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bahr, G.S.; Ford, R.A. How and why pop-ups don’t work: Pop-up prompted eye movements, user affect and decision making. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2011, 27, 776–783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cara, C.; Dumitrașciuc, L.F. GDPR consent pop-ups. How are we thinking about them? An Elaboration Likelihood perspective. J. Int. Bus. Manag. 2021, 4, 01–10. [Google Scholar]
- Hong, W.; Thong, J.Y.; Tam, K.Y. How do Web users respond to non-banner-ads animation? The effects of task type and user experience. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 2007, 58, 1467–1482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, W.; Liang, X.; Liu, F. The Effect of Webpage Complexity and Banner Animation on Banner Effectiveness in a Free Browsing Task. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 2019, 35, 1192–1202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jahromi, H.Z.; Delaney, D.T.; Hines, A. Beyond First Impressions: Estimating Quality of Experience for Interactive Web Applications. Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/8948470/09027906.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2021).
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Jahromi, H.Z.; Delaney, D.; Hines, A. A Sign of Things to Come: Predicting the Perception of Above-the-Fold Time in Web Browsing. Future Internet 2021, 13, 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13020050
Jahromi HZ, Delaney D, Hines A. A Sign of Things to Come: Predicting the Perception of Above-the-Fold Time in Web Browsing. Future Internet. 2021; 13(2):50. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13020050Chicago/Turabian Style
Jahromi, Hamed Z., Declan Delaney, and Andrew Hines. 2021. "A Sign of Things to Come: Predicting the Perception of Above-the-Fold Time in Web Browsing" Future Internet 13, no. 2: 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13020050