25 Years of Bluetooth Technology
- We present the evolution of Bluetooth technology over the last two decades as well as current and future trends of Bluetooth.
- We describe internetworking solutions between Bluetooth and IP-based networks. We also present the communication protocols used between Bluetooth and Zigbee.
- We discuss recent attacks on Bluetooth and solutions to mitigate them.
- Finally, we highlight state-of-the-art research efforts that have been leveraging Bluetooth technology to provide innovative solutions in areas such as health, location tracking, and smart homes.
2. Bluetooth Technologies
2.1. Bluetooth BR/EDR
2.1.1. Bluetooth Protocols
2.1.2. Applications of Bluetooth BR/EDR (Classic Bluetooth)
2.2. Bluetooth Low Energy
2.2.1. BLE Data Exchange Methods
2.2.2. Applications of Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth Smart)
- Static Point of Interest (POI): Static POI refers to initiating an action when a user enters a specific physical area. For example, the location of the POI could map to a front reception desk or an elevator, etc. Once an individual is at or near a specific location, determining the position or direction of the user allows enhancing the user experience. For instance, a hotel could deploy BLE beacons and build applications for customers that offer the ability to unlock room doors by simply being in close proximity to the door.
- Indoor mapping: Many companies attempted to resolve the indoor geo-location issue and BLE beacons could be a potential solution. By creating applications and installing BLE beacons in big shopping centers, customers can steer through retail shops easily. This added value to customers will encourage them to keep the application open and the Bluetooth radio turned on.
- Two-way proximity: This allows the user device to act as the beacon. An action or event can be triggered on one device that sends the user’s ID and micro-location to a peer or administrator application, enabling the capability of locating other people such as friends, etc.
- Analytics: There are many prospects for marketers to collect valuable insights from BLE beacons: getting information such as who entered a specific region, at what time and for how long. Getting this information can provide insight about a specific location. Marketers can use this data to constantly customize offerings in order to instill confidence in their customers .
2.3. Bluetooth Mesh
2.3.1. Bluetooth Mesh Protocol Stack
- BLE Core Specification: The standard built on top of the BLE specification utilizes advertising and connection oriented features.
- Bearer layer: This layer provides an abstraction (called a “bearer”) for the underlying BLE specification for the top layers. Bearers could be Advertising (ADV) bearers or Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) bearers. The ADV bearer abstracts BLE advertising and the GATT bearer abstracts BLE connections.
- Network layer: This layer allows relaying and security.
- Transport layer: Segmenting and reassembly of messages are the primary responsibilities of this layer.
- Access layer: This layer is an interface between application focused layers and the layers below. The access layer enables correct exchange of messages between the layers above and below.
- Foundation model layer and the model layer: A model relates to the arrangement and administration of the mesh. It is possible for a Bluetooth mesh gadget to be described, as a grouping of various models, which represents a part of the application and together they represent the device. An application is implemented above this stack.
2.3.2. Communication in a Bluetooth Mesh
2.3.3. Applications of Bluetooth Mesh
3. Connecting Bluetooth Devices to IP-Based Networks
4. Communication between Bluetooth and Zigbee
4.2. Bluetooth-Zigbee Interoperability
- dsPIC Microcontroller: Node settings are implemented via ATtention (AT) commands transmitted to the DCE module.
- Graphic Liquid Crystal Display (GLCD): GCLD allows the user to see various system settings and messages.
- Keyboard: Allows the user to type in text values.
- RS232 transceiver: Changes the RS232 voltage levels to UART voltages.
- Reset button: Helps restart the DTE module.
- Zigbee module: It is an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) serial port adapter OZS311i Zigbee/IEEE 802.15.4 module launched by ConnectBlue , a manufacturer for data products and solutions. The OZS311i is an IEEE 802.15.4 implementation, with an internal antenna of approximately three-hundred-meter range.
- Bluetooth module: This is the OEM serial port adapter OBS433i that is a long range Bluetooth 2.1+EDR module (class 1), with support for the Serial Port Profile (SPP) for fast and secure transparent serial data transmissions, and the Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN). It is worth noting that the Serial Port Profile specifies the utilization of the Radio Frequency COMMunication (RFCOMM) protocol to emulate RS232 cable communications .
5. Bluetooth Security
- Disclosure threat: The information can leak from the target system to an eavesdropper that is not authorized to access the information.
- Integrity threat: The information can be deliberately altered to mislead the recipient.
- Denial of Service (DoS) threat: The users can be blocked from gaining access to a service by making it either unavailable or severely limiting its availability to an authorized user.
- PIN cracking
- MAC spoofing
- Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) Attack
- Bluejacking attack
- BlueSnarfing attack
- Bluebugging attack
- Bluesmack attack
- BluePrinting attack
- Backdoor attack
- DoS attack
- BD_ADDR attack
- SCO/eSCO attack
- L2CAP guaranteed service attack
- Cabir worm
Security Risks Specific to Bluetooth Low Energy
6. Recent Research Results on Bluetooth
6.2. Location Tracking
6.4. Smart Homes
Conflicts of Interest
|ACL||Asynchronous Connectionless link|
|API||Application Programming Interface|
|BLE||Bluetooth Low Energy|
|CRC||Cyclic Redundancy Checks|
|DCE||Data Communications Equipment|
|DoS||Denial of Service|
|DPSK||Differential Phase Shift Keying|
|DQPSK||Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying|
|DTE||Digital Terminal Equipment|
|EDR||Enhanced Data Rate|
|GAP||Generic Access Profile|
|GATT||Generic Attribute Profile|
|GLCD||Graphic Liquid Crystal Display|
|GPRS||General Packet Radio Service|
|GSM||Global System for Mobile Communication|
|HCI||Host Controller Interface|
|IoT||Internet of Things|
|ISM||Industrial, Science and Medical|
|L2CAP||Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol|
|LAN||Local Area Network|
|LMP||Link Management Protocol|
|LTE||Long Term Evolution|
|MAC||Media Access Control|
|OBEX||Bluetooth Object Exchange|
|OEM||Original Equipment Manufacturer|
|PDU||Protocol Data Unit|
|POI||Point of Interest|
|RFCOMM||Radio Frequency COMMunication|
|SAR||Segmentation and Reassembly|
|SDP||Service Discovery Protocol|
|SIG||Special Interest Group|
|SMS||Short Message Service|
|SPP||Serial Port Profile|
|SSP||Secure Simple Pairing|
|TCP||Transmission Control Protocol|
|UDP||User Datagram Protocol|
|vCard||Virtual Contact File|
|WAN||Wide Area Network|
|WAP||Wireless Application Protocol|
|WPAN||Wireless Personal Area Network|
|WSN||Wireless Sensor Network|
|XML||eXtensible Markup Language|
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|Bluetooth Specification||v1.1||v2.0 + EDR||v2.1 + EDR||v3.0 + HS||v4.0 + LE||v4.1||v4.2||v5.0|
|Enhanced Data Rate (EDR)||NO||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|High Speed (HS)||NO||NO||NO||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|Low Power (LE)||NO||NO||NO||NO||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|Core Version||Issue Year||Major Improvements|
|1.2||2003||Adaptive frequency hopping, inquiry-based RSSI|
|2.0||2004||2.1 Mbps peak data rates|
|2.1||2007||3.0 Mbps peak data rates|
|3.0||2009||24 Mbps peak data rates|
|4.0||2010||Lower energy consumption, broadcasting, lower connection latency|
|4.1||2013||Improved device power management by pairing that allows automatic powering up and down|
|4.2||2014||Improved security, low energy data packet length extension, link layer privacy|
|5.0||2016||Higher data rates (48 Mbps), better energy efficiency, higher broadcasting message capacity, larger range and strong point-to-point connection and reliability|
|Attacks Prior to Pairing||Attacks after Pairing|
|BlueSnarfing||Denial of Service (DoS)|
|BluePrinting||Offline PIN recovery|
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Zeadally, S.; Siddiqui, F.; Baig, Z. 25 Years of Bluetooth Technology. Future Internet 2019, 11, 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11090194
Zeadally S, Siddiqui F, Baig Z. 25 Years of Bluetooth Technology. Future Internet. 2019; 11(9):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11090194Chicago/Turabian Style
Zeadally, Sherali, Farhan Siddiqui, and Zubair Baig. 2019. "25 Years of Bluetooth Technology" Future Internet 11, no. 9: 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11090194