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Open AccessArticle

Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on 3D ConvNets and Non-Local Blocks

School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, JinZhai Road Baohe District, Anhui 230026, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Future Internet 2019, 11(6), 123;
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Big Data and Augmented Intelligence)
Vehicle speed estimation is an important problem in traffic surveillance. Many existing approaches to this problem are based on camera calibration. Two shortcomings exist for camera calibration-based methods. First, camera calibration methods are sensitive to the environment, which means the accuracy of the results are compromised in some situations where the environmental condition is not satisfied. Furthermore, camera calibration-based methods rely on vehicle trajectories acquired by a two-stage tracking and detection process. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, we propose an alternate end-to-end method based on 3-dimensional convolutional networks (3D ConvNets). The proposed method bases average vehicle speed estimation on information from video footage. Our methods are characterized by the following three features. First, we use non-local blocks in our model to better capture spatial–temporal long-range dependency. Second, we use optical flow as an input in the model. Optical flow includes the information on the speed and direction of pixel motion in an image. Third, we construct a multi-scale convolutional network. This network extracts information on various characteristics of vehicles in motion. The proposed method showcases promising experimental results on commonly used dataset with mean absolute error (MAE) as 2.71 km/h and mean square error (MSE) as 14.62 . View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle speed estimation; 3D ConvNets; non-local blocks; optical flow; multi-scale vehicle speed estimation; 3D ConvNets; non-local blocks; optical flow; multi-scale
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Dong, H.; Wen, M.; Yang, Z. Vehicle Speed Estimation Based on 3D ConvNets and Non-Local Blocks. Future Internet 2019, 11, 123.

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