Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Performance of Dry Powder Inhalers with Single Dosed Capsules in Preschool Children and Adults Using Improved Upper Airway Models
Previous Article in Journal
Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 26-35;

Electrostatic Charge Effects on Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition in Human Nasal–Laryngeal Airways

Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, Central Michigan University, Mt Pleasant, MI 48858, USA
Department of Engineering, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI 49546, USA
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory and Nasal Drug Delivery)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1346 KB, uploaded 29 January 2014]   |  


Electrostatic charging occurs in most aerosol generation processes and can significantly influence subsequent particle deposition rates and patterns in the respiratory tract through the image and space forces. The behavior of inhaled aerosols with charge is expected to be most affected in the upper airways, where particles come in close proximity to the narrow turbinate surface, and before charge dissipation occurs as a result of high humidity. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the deposition of charged aerosols in an MRI-based nasal–laryngeal airway model. Particle sizes of 5 nm–30 µm and charge levels ranging from neutralized to ten times the saturation limit were considered. A well-validated low Reynolds number (LRN) k–ω turbulence model and a discrete Lagrangian tracking approach that accounted for electrostatic image force were employed to simulate the nasal airflow and aerosol dynamics. For ultrafine aerosols, electrostatic charge was observed to exert a discernible but insignificant effect. In contrast, remarkably enhanced depositions were observed for micrometer particles with charge, which could be one order of magnitude larger than no-charge depositions. The deposition hot spots shifted towards the anterior part of the upper airway as the charge level increased. Results of this study have important implications for evaluating nasal drug delivery devices and for assessing doses received from pollutants, which often carry a certain level of electric charges. View Full-Text
Keywords: nasal drug delivery; charged particles; image-based modeling; nasal deposition nasal drug delivery; charged particles; image-based modeling; nasal deposition

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, J.; Si, X.; Longest, W. Electrostatic Charge Effects on Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition in Human Nasal–Laryngeal Airways. Pharmaceutics 2014, 6, 26-35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top