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Review

Enhancing the Stability of Bacteriophages Using Physical, Chemical, and Nano-Based Approaches: A Review

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Concetta Di Natale and Valentina Onesto
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(9), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091936
Received: 30 August 2022 / Revised: 9 September 2022 / Accepted: 11 September 2022 / Published: 13 September 2022
Phages are efficient in diagnosing, treating, and preventing various diseases, and as sensing elements in biosensors. Phage display alone has gained attention over the past decade, especially in pharmaceuticals. Bacteriophages have also found importance in research aiming to fight viruses and in the consequent formulation of antiviral agents and vaccines. All these applications require control over the stability of virions. Phages are considered resistant to various harsh conditions. However, stability-determining parameters are usually the only additional factors in phage-related applications. Phages face instability and activity loss when preserved for extended periods. Sudden environmental changes, including exposure to UV light, temperature, pH, and salt concentration, also lead to a phage titer fall. This review describes various formulations that impart stability to phage stocks, mainly focusing on polymer-based stabilization, encapsulation, lyophilization, and nano-assisted solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; phage therapy; phage stabilization; lyophilization; encapsulation; nano-assisted stabilization; polymers antibiotic resistance; phage therapy; phage stabilization; lyophilization; encapsulation; nano-assisted stabilization; polymers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wdowiak, M.; Paczesny, J.; Raza, S. Enhancing the Stability of Bacteriophages Using Physical, Chemical, and Nano-Based Approaches: A Review. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091936

AMA Style

Wdowiak M, Paczesny J, Raza S. Enhancing the Stability of Bacteriophages Using Physical, Chemical, and Nano-Based Approaches: A Review. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(9):1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wdowiak, Mateusz, Jan Paczesny, and Sada Raza. 2022. "Enhancing the Stability of Bacteriophages Using Physical, Chemical, and Nano-Based Approaches: A Review" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 9: 1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091936

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