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Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Novel Transdermal Ketoprofen Formulation in Healthy Dogs

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Snezana Savic and Ivana Pantelić
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(3), 646;
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 11 March 2022 / Accepted: 13 March 2022 / Published: 15 March 2022
Dogs undergo various surgical procedures such as castration, ovariohysterectomy, and other orthopedic procedures, which are known to cause inflammation and pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are very effective analgesics for alleviating postoperative pain in veterinary medicine. Ketoprofen is currently approved in Australia and the United States for treating different painful conditions in dogs. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic parameters of ketoprofen after intravenous (IV) and transdermal (TD) administration in healthy dogs. A novel transdermal ketoprofen (TDK) formulation containing 20% ketoprofen, dissolved in a combination of 45:45% isopropanol and Transcutol, along with 10% eucalyptus oil, was developed and evaluated for in vitro dermal permeation using Franz diffusion cells. A crossover study was then conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulation in six dogs following IV ketoprofen (1 mg/kg) and TDK (10 mg/kg) administration. A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-M/MS) method was used to measure plasma concentrations of ketoprofen over time, and a non-compartmental analysis determined the pharmacokinetic parameters. The mean terminal elimination half-life (T½ h), AUC0-t (µg·h/mL), and mean residence time (MRT, h) between IV and TDK groups were 4.69 ± 1.33 and 25.77 ± 22.15 h, 15.75 ± 7.72 and 8.13 ± 4.28 µg·h/mL, and 4.86 ± 1.81 and 41.63 ± 32.33 h, respectively. The calculated bioavailability (F%) was ~7%, with a lag time of 30 min to achieve effective plasma concentrations after the application of TDK. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacokinetics; dogs; ketoprofen; bioavailability; transdermal pharmacokinetics; dogs; ketoprofen; bioavailability; transdermal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ravuri, H.G.; Satake, N.; Balmanno, A.; Skinner, J.; Kempster, S.; Mills, P.C. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Novel Transdermal Ketoprofen Formulation in Healthy Dogs. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 646.

AMA Style

Ravuri HG, Satake N, Balmanno A, Skinner J, Kempster S, Mills PC. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Novel Transdermal Ketoprofen Formulation in Healthy Dogs. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(3):646.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ravuri, Halley Gora, Nana Satake, Alexandra Balmanno, Jazmine Skinner, Samantha Kempster, and Paul C. Mills. 2022. "Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Novel Transdermal Ketoprofen Formulation in Healthy Dogs" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 3: 646.

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