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Article

Investigation of the Freezing Phenomenon in Vials Using an Infrared Camera

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 24 Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 10129 Torino, Italy
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Academic Editor: Holger Grohganz
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101664
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical Products)
The freezing phenomenon has a dramatic impact on the quality of freeze-dried products. Several freezing models applied to solutions in vials have been proposed to predict the resulting product morphology and describe heat transfer mechanisms. However, there is a lack of detailed experimental observations of the freezing phenomenon in vials in the literature. Thus, the present work offers new experimental observations of the freezing phenomenon in vials by infrared (IR) thermography. IR imaging allowed each vial’s whole axial temperature profile to be collected during freezing, providing significant insights into the process. Spontaneous nucleation and vacuum-induced surface freezing (VISF), as a controlled nucleation technique, are investigated. Batches having vials in direct contact with the shelf (exchanging heat mainly through conduction) as well as suspended (exchanging heat mainly through natural convection and radiation) were tested. The study used three solutions: sucrose 5%, mannitol 5%, and dextran 10%. SEM images coupled with an automated image segmentation technique were also performed to examine possible correlations between the freezing observations and the resulting pore size distributions. IR thermography was found to be a promising tool for experimentally predicting the resulting product morphology in-line. View Full-Text
Keywords: freeze-drying; freezing; IR imaging; VISF; suspended vials; model freeze-drying; freezing; IR imaging; VISF; suspended vials; model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harguindeguy, M.; Stratta, L.; Fissore, D.; Pisano, R. Investigation of the Freezing Phenomenon in Vials Using an Infrared Camera. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101664

AMA Style

Harguindeguy M, Stratta L, Fissore D, Pisano R. Investigation of the Freezing Phenomenon in Vials Using an Infrared Camera. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10):1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harguindeguy, Maitê, Lorenzo Stratta, Davide Fissore, and Roberto Pisano. 2021. "Investigation of the Freezing Phenomenon in Vials Using an Infrared Camera" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 10: 1664. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101664

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