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Review

Nanoparticles as Adjuvants and Nanodelivery Systems for mRNA-Based Vaccines

1
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Aalfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010045
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Evaluation of Novel Adjuvants for Vaccine Formulations)
Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines have shown promise against infectious diseases and several types of cancer in the last two decades. Their promise can be attributed to their safety profiles, high potency, and ability to be rapidly and affordably manufactured. Now, many RNA-based vaccines are being evaluated in clinical trials as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. However, until recently, their development has been limited by their instability and inefficient in vivo transfection. The nanodelivery system plays a dual function in RNA-based vaccination by acting as a carrier system and as an adjuvant. That is due to its similarity to microorganisms structurally and size-wise; the nanodelivery system can augment the response by the immune system via simulating the natural infection process. Nanodelivery systems allow non-invasive mucosal administration, targeted immune cell delivery, and controlled delivery, reducing the need for multiple administrations. They also allow co-encapsulating with immunostimulators to improve the overall adjuvant capacity. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent developments and applications of biodegradable nanodelivery systems that improve RNA-based vaccine delivery and enhance the immunological response against targeted diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mRNA; adjuvant; vaccine; nanoparticles; nanodelivery systems; lipids; polymers mRNA; adjuvant; vaccine; nanoparticles; nanodelivery systems; lipids; polymers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfagih, I.M.; Aldosari, B.; AlQuadeib, B.; Almurshedi, A.; Alfagih, M.M. Nanoparticles as Adjuvants and Nanodelivery Systems for mRNA-Based Vaccines. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010045

AMA Style

Alfagih IM, Aldosari B, AlQuadeib B, Almurshedi A, Alfagih MM. Nanoparticles as Adjuvants and Nanodelivery Systems for mRNA-Based Vaccines. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(1):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfagih, Iman M., Basmah Aldosari, Bushra AlQuadeib, Alanood Almurshedi, and Mariyam M. Alfagih 2021. "Nanoparticles as Adjuvants and Nanodelivery Systems for mRNA-Based Vaccines" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 1: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13010045

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