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Open AccessReview

Drug Delivery Applications of Three-Dimensional Printed (3DP) Mesoporous Scaffolds

1
Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
2
SMILEs Lab, PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(9), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090851
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials for Drug Delivery and Theranostics)
Mesoporous materials are structures characterized by a well-ordered large pore system with uniform porous dimensions ranging between 2 and 50 nm. Typical samples are zeolite, carbon molecular sieves, porous metal oxides, organic and inorganic porous hybrid and pillared materials, silica clathrate and clathrate hydrates compounds. Improvement in biochemistry and materials science led to the design and implementation of different types of porous materials ranging from rigid to soft two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) skeletons. The present review focuses on the use of three-dimensional printed (3DP) mesoporous scaffolds suitable for a wide range of drug delivery applications, due to their intrinsic high surface area and high pore volume. In the first part, the importance of the porosity of materials employed for drug delivery application was discussed focusing on mesoporous materials. At the end of the introduction, hard and soft templating synthesis for the realization of ordered 2D/3D mesostructured porous materials were described. In the second part, 3DP fabrication techniques, including fused deposition modelling, material jetting as inkjet printing, electron beam melting, selective laser sintering, stereolithography and digital light processing, electrospinning, and two-photon polymerization were described. In the last section, through recent bibliographic research, a wide number of 3D printed mesoporous materials, for in vitro and in vivo drug delivery applications, most of which relate to bone cells and tissues, were presented and summarized in a table in which all the technical and bibliographical details were reported. This review highlights, to a very cross-sectional audience, how the interdisciplinarity of certain branches of knowledge, as those of materials science and nano-microfabrication are, represent a growing valuable aid in the advanced forum for the science and technology of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug delivery; three-dimensional porous scaffolds; electron beam melting; selective laser sintering; stereolithography; electrospinning; two-photon polymerization; osteogenesis; antibiotics; anti-inflammatory drug delivery; three-dimensional porous scaffolds; electron beam melting; selective laser sintering; stereolithography; electrospinning; two-photon polymerization; osteogenesis; antibiotics; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Limongi, T.; Susa, F.; Allione, M.; di Fabrizio, E. Drug Delivery Applications of Three-Dimensional Printed (3DP) Mesoporous Scaffolds. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090851

AMA Style

Limongi T, Susa F, Allione M, di Fabrizio E. Drug Delivery Applications of Three-Dimensional Printed (3DP) Mesoporous Scaffolds. Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12(9):851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Limongi, Tania; Susa, Francesca; Allione, Marco; di Fabrizio, Enzo. 2020. "Drug Delivery Applications of Three-Dimensional Printed (3DP) Mesoporous Scaffolds" Pharmaceutics 12, no. 9: 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090851

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