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The Overview of Porous, Bioactive Scaffolds as Instructive Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Their Clinical Translation

1
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, UMR_S 1121, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg CEDEX, France
2
Department of Information Technology, Aleksander Moisiu University, 2001 Durres, Albania
3
Spartha Medical, 14B rue de la Canardière, 67100 Strasbourg, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(7), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070602
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
Porous scaffolds have been employed for decades in the biomedical field where researchers have been seeking to produce an environment which could approach one of the extracellular matrixes supporting cells in natural tissues. Such three-dimensional systems offer many degrees of freedom to modulate cell activity, ranging from the chemistry of the structure and the architectural properties such as the porosity, the pore, and interconnection size. All these features can be exploited synergistically to tailor the cell–material interactions, and further, the tissue growth within the voids of the scaffold. Herein, an overview of the materials employed to generate porous scaffolds as well as the various techniques that are used to process them is supplied. Furthermore, scaffold parameters which modulate cell behavior are identified under distinct aspects: the architecture of inert scaffolds (i.e., pore and interconnection size, porosity, mechanical properties, etc.) alone on cell functions followed by comparison with bioactive scaffolds to grasp the most relevant features driving tissue regeneration. Finally, in vivo outcomes are highlighted comparing the accordance between in vitro and in vivo results in order to tackle the future translational challenges in tissue repair and regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: porous scaffolds; pore size; tissue engineering; bioactive agent delivery; interconnection size porous scaffolds; pore size; tissue engineering; bioactive agent delivery; interconnection size
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lutzweiler, G.; Ndreu Halili, A.; Engin Vrana, N. The Overview of Porous, Bioactive Scaffolds as Instructive Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Their Clinical Translation. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070602

AMA Style

Lutzweiler G, Ndreu Halili A, Engin Vrana N. The Overview of Porous, Bioactive Scaffolds as Instructive Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Their Clinical Translation. Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12(7):602. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070602

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lutzweiler, Gaëtan; Ndreu Halili, Albana; Engin Vrana, Nihal. 2020. "The Overview of Porous, Bioactive Scaffolds as Instructive Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration and Their Clinical Translation" Pharmaceutics 12, no. 7: 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070602

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