Next Article in Journal
Semi-Mechanism-Based Pharmacokinetic-Toxicodynamic Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Acute and Chronic Neuropathy
Next Article in Special Issue
A 3D Bioprinted Pseudo-Bone Drug Delivery Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering
Previous Article in Journal
Enteric Hard Capsules for Targeting the Small Intestine: Positive Correlation between In Vitro Disintegration and Dissolution Times
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a Biodegradable Subcutaneous Implant for Prolonged Drug Delivery Using 3D Printing
Open AccessReview

Polymers for Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals: A Holistic Materials–Process Perspective

1
Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Life Sciences Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
3
Department of Engineering Technology, Queensborough Community College, City University of New York (CUNY), Bayside, NY 11364, USA
4
Department of Public Health, School of Arts and Sciences, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (MCPHS), Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12020124
Received: 1 January 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
Three dimensional (3D) printing as an advanced manufacturing technology is progressing to be established in the pharmaceutical industry to overcome the traditional manufacturing regime of 'one size fits for all'. Using 3D printing, it is possible to design and develop complex dosage forms that can be suitable for tuning drug release. Polymers are the key materials that are necessary for 3D printing. Among all 3D printing processes, extrusion-based (both fused deposition modeling (FDM) and pressure-assisted microsyringe (PAM)) 3D printing is well researched for pharmaceutical manufacturing. It is important to understand which polymers are suitable for extrusion-based 3D printing of pharmaceuticals and how their properties, as well as the behavior of polymer–active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) combinations, impact the printing process. Especially, understanding the rheology of the polymer and API–polymer mixtures is necessary for successful 3D printing of dosage forms or printed structures. This review has summarized a holistic materials–process perspective for polymers on extrusion-based 3D printing. The main focus herein will be both FDM and PAM 3D printing processes. It elaborates the discussion on the comparison of 3D printing with the traditional direct compression process, the necessity of rheology, and the characterization techniques required for the printed structure, drug, and excipients. The current technological challenges, regulatory aspects, and the direction toward which the technology is moving, especially for personalized pharmaceuticals and multi-drug printing, are also briefly discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymers; pharmaceuticals; extrusion-based 3D printing; fused deposition modeling (FDM); pressure-assisted microsyringe (PAM); materials; process polymers; pharmaceuticals; extrusion-based 3D printing; fused deposition modeling (FDM); pressure-assisted microsyringe (PAM); materials; process
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Azad, M.A.; Olawuni, D.; Kimbell, G.; Badruddoza, A.Z.M.; Hossain, M.S.; Sultana, T. Polymers for Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals: A Holistic Materials–Process Perspective. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 124.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop