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Review

Recent Advances in Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Systems and Their Potential in Precision Medicine

1
Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 6500HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111006
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Systems)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bilayered nanoparticles released by most cell types. Recently, an enormous number of studies have been published on the potential of EVs as carriers of therapeutic agents. In contrast to systems such as liposomes, EVs exhibit less immunogenicity and higher engineering potential. Here, we review the most relevant publications addressing the potential and use of EVs as a drug delivery system (DDS). The information is divided based on the key steps for designing an EV-mediated delivery strategy. We discuss possible sources and isolation methods of EVs. We address the administration routes that have been tested in vivo and the tissue distribution observed. We describe the current knowledge on EV clearance, a significant challenge towards enhancing bioavailability. Also, EV-engineering approaches are described as alternatives to improve tissue and cell-specificity. Finally, a summary of the ongoing clinical trials is performed. Although the application of EVs in the clinical practice is still at an early stage, a high number of studies in animals support their potential as DDS. Thus, better treatment options could be designed to precisely increase target specificity and therapeutic efficacy while reducing off-target effects and toxicity according to the individual requirements of each patient. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; drug delivery; nanoparticles; precision medicine exosomes; extracellular vesicles; drug delivery; nanoparticles; precision medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Jong, B.; Barros, E.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Rigalli, J.P. Recent Advances in Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Systems and Their Potential in Precision Medicine. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111006

AMA Style

de Jong B, Barros ER, Hoenderop JGJ, Rigalli JP. Recent Advances in Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Systems and Their Potential in Precision Medicine. Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12(11):1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111006

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Jong, Bart, Eric R. Barros, Joost G.J. Hoenderop, and Juan P. Rigalli 2020. "Recent Advances in Extracellular Vesicles as Drug Delivery Systems and Their Potential in Precision Medicine" Pharmaceutics 12, no. 11: 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111006

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