Next Article in Journal
Latest Advances in the Development of Eukaryotic Vaults as Targeted Drug Delivery Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Delivery of Nanoparticles across the Intestinal Epithelium via the Transferrin Transport Pathway
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Photodegradation Study of Sertindole by UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF and Influence of Some Metal Oxide Excipients on the Degradation Process

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(7), 299;
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
PDF [3504 KB, uploaded 27 June 2019]


The evaluation of the influence of the excipients present in the pharmaceutical formulations on the drug stability is an important part of quality control of medicines. One of the most commonly applied group of excipients are pigments, such as titanium dioxide or various forms of iron oxides, which are well-known photocatalytic agents. Therefore, the photostability of an atypical antipsychotic drug sertindole and the influence of pigments commonly used in the pharmaceutical formulations (FeOOH, Fe2O3, and TiO2) on this process were studied. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the process was performed with the use of ultra high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD) system coupled with a high resolution hybrid electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. Sertindole turned out to be a highly photolabile molecule. Overall 18 transformation products were found, mainly formed as a consequence of dechlorination, hydroxylation, and dehydrogenation. In all the experiments, except the TiO2-mediated photocatalysis, the product of chlorine substitution with a hydroxyl group was the major product. The presence of Fe2O3 and TiO2 accelerated the degradation process, while FeOOH served as its inhibitor. The experiments conducted with the use of the pharmaceutical formulations confirmed the catalytic activity of the used excipients. The exploration of the obtained phototransformation profiles with the use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the presence of both iron oxides could influence the qualitative and quantitative aspect of the studied processes. In silico assessment of the properties showed that the transformation products are generally less toxic to rodents, possess lower hERG blocking potential, but could be more mutagenic than the parent molecule. View Full-Text
Keywords: sertindole; iron oxides; titanium dioxide; photodegradation; photocatalysis; PCA sertindole; iron oxides; titanium dioxide; photodegradation; photocatalysis; PCA

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Trawiński, J.; Skibiński, R. Photodegradation Study of Sertindole by UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF and Influence of Some Metal Oxide Excipients on the Degradation Process. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 299.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top