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Open AccessArticle

The Ratio of Nasal Cannula Gas Flow to Patient Inspiratory Flow on Trans-nasal Pulmonary Aerosol Delivery for Adults: An in Vitro Study

1
Department of Cardiopulmonary Sciences, Division of Respiratory Care, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60130, USA
2
Aerogen Pharma Corp, San Mateo, CA 94402, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11050225
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Trans-nasal aerosol deposition during distressed breathing is higher than quiet breathing, and decreases as administered gas flow increases. We hypothesize that inhaled dose is related to the ratio of gas flow to patient inspiratory flow (GF:IF). An adult manikin (Laerdal) with a collecting filter placed at trachea was connected to a dual-chamber model lung, which was driven by a ventilator to simulate quiet and distressed breathing with different inspiratory flows. Gas flow was set at 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 L/min. Albuterol (2.5mg in 1 mL) was nebulized by vibrating mesh nebulizer at the inlet of humidifier at 37 °C for each condition (n = 3). Drug was eluted from the filter and assayed with UV spectrophotometry (276 nm). GF:IF was the primary predictor of inhaled dose (p < 0.001). When the ratio was < 1.0, the inhaled dose was higher than ratio > 1.0 (21.8 ± 3.8% vs. 9.0 ± 3.7%, p < 0.001), and the inhaled dose was similar between quiet and distressed breathing (22.3 ± 5.0% vs. 21.3 ± 2.7%, p = 0.379). During trans-nasal aerosol delivery, GF:IF primarily affected the inhaled dose. Compared to the ratio above 1.0, the ratio below 1.0 produced a higher and more-consistent inhaled dose. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen inhalation therapy; high-flow nasal cannula; aerosol; flow oxygen inhalation therapy; high-flow nasal cannula; aerosol; flow
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Li, J.; Gong, L.; Fink, J.B. The Ratio of Nasal Cannula Gas Flow to Patient Inspiratory Flow on Trans-nasal Pulmonary Aerosol Delivery for Adults: An in Vitro Study. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 225.

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