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Cationic Niosomes as Non-Viral Vehicles for Nucleic Acids: Challenges and Opportunities in Gene Delivery

1
Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Networking Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), E-08034 Barcelona, E-01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz and E-03202 Elche, Spain
3
NanoBioCel Group, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
4
Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología del CSIC, Avda. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
5
Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
6
Neuroprothesis and Neuroengineering Research Group, Miguel Hernández University, E-03202 Elche, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020050
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Ionic Surfactant Vesicles for Drug Delivery)
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Abstract

Cationic niosomes have become important non-viral vehicles for transporting a good number of small drug molecules and macromolecules. Growing interest shown by these colloidal nanoparticles in therapy is determined by their structural similarities to liposomes. Cationic niosomes are usually obtained from the self-assembly of non-ionic surfactant molecules. This process can be governed not only by the nature of such surfactants but also by others factors like the presence of additives, formulation preparation and properties of the encapsulated hydrophobic or hydrophilic molecules. This review is aimed at providing recent information for using cationic niosomes for gene delivery purposes with particular emphasis on improving the transportation of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), small interference RNAs (siRNAs), aptamers and plasmids (pDNA). View Full-Text
Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; aptamers; cationic lipids; cationic niosomes; gene delivery; plasmids; small interference RNA; therapy antisense oligonucleotides; aptamers; cationic lipids; cationic niosomes; gene delivery; plasmids; small interference RNA; therapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Grijalvo, S.; Puras, G.; Zárate, J.; Sainz-Ramos, M.; Qtaish, N.A.L.; López, T.; Mashal, M.; Attia, N.; Díaz Díaz, D.; Pons, R.; Fernández, E.; Pedraz, J.L.; Eritja, R. Cationic Niosomes as Non-Viral Vehicles for Nucleic Acids: Challenges and Opportunities in Gene Delivery. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 50.

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