The development of vaccines plays a vital role in the effective control of several fatal diseases. However, effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have yet to be developed for completely curing deadly diseases, such as cancer, malaria, HIV, and serious microbial infections. Thus, suitable vaccine candidates need to be designed to elicit appropriate immune responses. Nanotechnology has been found to play a unique role in the design of vaccines, providing them with enhanced specificity and potency. Nano-scaled materials, such as virus-like particles, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), and protein NPs, have received considerable attention over the past decade as potential carriers for the delivery of vaccine antigens and adjuvants, due to their beneficial advantages, like improved antigen stability, targeted delivery, and long-time release, for which antigens/adjuvants are either encapsulated within, or decorated on, the NP surface. Flexibility in the design of nanomedicine allows for the programming of immune responses, thereby addressing the many challenges encountered in vaccine development. Biomimetic NPs have emerged as innovative natural mimicking biosystems that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in biomimetic nanovaccines, and their use in anti-bacterial therapy, anti-HIV therapy, anti-malarial therapy, anti-melittin therapy, and anti-tumor immunity.
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