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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030112

Exploring the Metabolism of Loxoprofen in Liver Microsomes: The Role of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase in Its Biotransformation

1
BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics based Creative Drug Research Team, College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
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Abstract

Loxoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is a prodrug that is reduced to its active metabolite, trans-alcohol form (Trans-OH) by carbonyl reductase enzyme in the liver. Previous studies demonstrated the hydroxylation and glucuronidation of loxoprofen. However, the specific enzymes catalyzing its metabolism have yet to be identified. In the present study, we investigated metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), which are involved in the metabolism of loxoprofen. Eight microsomal metabolites of loxoprofen were identified, including two alcohol metabolites (M1 and M2), two mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3 and M4), and four glucuronide conjugates (M5, M6, M7, and M8). Based on the results for the formation of metabolites when incubated in dexamethasone-induced microsomes, incubation with ketoconazole, and human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s, we identified CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 as the major CYP isoforms involved in the hydroxylation of loxoprofen (M3 and M4). Moreover, we identified that UGT2B7 is the major UGT isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of loxoprofen and its alcoholic metabolites. Further experimental studies should be carried out to determine the potency and toxicity of these identified metabolites of loxoprofen, in order to fully understand of mechanism of loxoprofen toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: loxoprofen; CYP; UGT; human liver microsomes; LC-HR/MS loxoprofen; CYP; UGT; human liver microsomes; LC-HR/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shrestha, R.; Cho, P.J.; Paudel, S.; Shrestha, A.; Kang, M.J.; Jeong, T.C.; Lee, E.-S.; Lee, S. Exploring the Metabolism of Loxoprofen in Liver Microsomes: The Role of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase in Its Biotransformation. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 112.

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