Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Mouse Papillomavirus Infection Model
Previous Article in Journal
Key Determinants of Human α-Defensin 5 and 6 for Enhancement of HIV Infectivity
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Enigmatic Origin of Papillomavirus Protein Domains
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2017, 9(9), 245;

Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
Academic Editors: Alison A. McBride and Karl Munger
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expert Views on HPV Infection)
PDF [1387 KB, uploaded 30 August 2017]


Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause diseases ranging from benign warts to invasive cancers. HPVs infect epithelial cells and their replication cycle is tightly linked with the differentiation process of the infected keratinocyte. The normal replication cycle involves an early and a late phase. The early phase encompasses viral entry and initial genome replication, stimulation of cell division and inhibition of apoptosis in the infected cell. Late events in the HPV life cycle include viral genome amplification, virion formation, and release into the environment from the surface of the epithelium. The main proteins required at the late stage of infection for viral genome amplification include E1, E2, E4 and E5. The late proteins L1 and L2 are structural proteins that form the viral capsid. Regulation of these late events involves both cellular and viral proteins. The late viral mRNAs are expressed from a specific late promoter but final late mRNA levels in the infected cell are controlled by splicing, polyadenylation, nuclear export and RNA stability. Viral late protein expression is also controlled at the level of translation. This review will discuss current knowledge of how HPV late gene expression is regulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; infection; epithelial differentiation; gene regulation; RNA processing human papillomavirus; infection; epithelial differentiation; gene regulation; RNA processing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Graham, S.V. Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation. Viruses 2017, 9, 245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top