The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control
AbstractAfrican swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from “nonendemic regions”, the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (PDF, 144 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Simulundu, E.; Lubaba, C.H.; van Heerden, J.; Kajihara, M.; Mataa, L.; Chambaro, H.M.; Sinkala, Y.; Munjita, S.M.; Munang’andu, H.M.; Nalubamba, K.S.; Samui, K.; Pandey, G.S.; Takada, A.; Mweene, A.S. The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control. Viruses 2017, 9, 236.
Simulundu E, Lubaba CH, van Heerden J, Kajihara M, Mataa L, Chambaro HM, Sinkala Y, Munjita SM, Munang’andu HM, Nalubamba KS, Samui K, Pandey GS, Takada A, Mweene AS. The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control. Viruses. 2017; 9(9):236.Chicago/Turabian Style
Simulundu, Edgar; Lubaba, Caesar H.; van Heerden, Juanita; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mataa, Liywalii; Chambaro, Herman M.; Sinkala, Yona; Munjita, Samuel M.; Munang’andu, Hetron M.; Nalubamba, King S.; Samui, Kenny; Pandey, Girja S.; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S. 2017. "The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control." Viruses 9, no. 9: 236.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.