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Viruses 2017, 9(7), 194;

Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6

College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC Box 7, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Life Sciences and Technology Park, 1951 NW 7th Avenue Ste. 270, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul M. Lieberman
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Telomeres)
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Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) are two closely related viruses that infect T-cells. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B possess telomere-like repeats at the terminal regions of their genomes that facilitate latency by integration into the host telomeres, rather than by episome formation. In about 1% of the human population, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) integration into germline cells allows the viral genome to be passed down from one generation to the other; this condition is called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). This review will cover the history of HHV-6 and recent works that define the biological differences between HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Additionally, HHV-6 integration and inheritance, the capacity for reactivation and superinfection of iciHHV-6 individuals with a second strain of HHV-6, and the role of hypomethylation of human chromosomes during integration are discussed. Overall, the data suggest that integration of HHV-6 in telomeres represent a unique mechanism of viral latency and offers a novel tool to study not only HHV-6 pathogenesis, but also telomere biology. Paradoxically, the integrated viral genome is often defective especially as seen in iciHHV-6 harboring individuals. Finally, gaps in the field of HHV-6 research are presented and future studies are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: HHV-6; integration; telomere; latency; inherited herpesvirus; human herpesvirus-6; immune tolerance; superinfection HHV-6; integration; telomere; latency; inherited herpesvirus; human herpesvirus-6; immune tolerance; superinfection

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Pantry, S.N.; Medveczky, P.G. Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6. Viruses 2017, 9, 194.

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