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Epstein–Barr Virus Hijacks DNA Damage Response Transducers to Orchestrate Its Life Cycle
Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the EBV-Induced Persistent DNA Damage Response

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2017, 9(12), 366;
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and the DNA Damage Response)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that is ubiquitous in the human population. Early after EBV infection in vitro, primary human B cells undergo a transient period of hyper-proliferation, which results in replicative stress and DNA damage, activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and, ultimately, senescence. In this study, we investigated DDR-mediated senescence in early arrested EBV-infected B cells and characterized the establishment of persistent DNA damage foci. We found that arrested EBV-infected B cells exhibited an increase in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs), which predominantly localized to markers of DNA damage, as well as telomeric DNA. Furthermore, arrested EBV-infected B cells exhibited an increase in the presence of telomere dysfunction-induced foci. Importantly, we found that increasing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression with danazol, a drug used to treat telomere diseases, permitted early EBV-infected B cells to overcome cellular senescence and enhanced transformation. Finally, we report that EBV-infected B cells undergoing hyper-proliferation are more sensitive than lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) to inhibition of Bloom syndrome-associated helicase, which facilitates telomere replication. Together, our results describe the composition of persistent DNA damage foci in the early stages of EBV infection and define key regulators of this barrier to long-term outgrowth. View Full-Text
Keywords: EBV; DNA damage; persistent DDR; telomere; senescence; immortalization EBV; DNA damage; persistent DDR; telomere; senescence; immortalization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hafez, A.Y.; Luftig, M.A. Characterization of the EBV-Induced Persistent DNA Damage Response. Viruses 2017, 9, 366.

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