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Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

Molecular and Cellular Epigenetics (GIGA) and Molecular Biology (Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech), University of Liège (ULg), 4000 Liège, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: David Boehr
Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3603-3624;
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; viral replication; viral persistence; Tax; HBZ HTLV-1; viral replication; viral persistence; Tax; HBZ
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Carpentier, A.; Barez, P.-Y.; Hamaidia, M.; Gazon, H.; De Brogniez, A.; Perike, S.; Gillet, N.; Willems, L. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence. Viruses 2015, 7, 3603-3624.

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